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1/519. Cytologic findings in noninvasive intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas. A report of two cases.

    BACKGROUND: Intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas is a new diagnostic term proposed by the 1996 world health organization classification of the exocrine pancreas. So far, there have been only a few reports concerning its cytologic findings, especially in noninvasive cases. CASES: The clinical and cytohistologic findings in two cases of noninvasive intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas were reviewed. Cytologic specimens were obtained from pure pancreatic juice in the dilated main pancreatic duct during the operation (case 1) and during endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) (case 2). Both cases showed three-dimensionally or individually scattered tumor cells with an increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio and prominent nucleoli. CONCLUSION: Our cases suggest that pancreatic juice cytology during ERP or surgery is useful in diagnosing pancreatic cancers and that it may detect noninvasive intraductal papillary-mucinous carcinoma of the pancreas. ( info)

2/519. Ductal carcinoma in situ recurrent on the chest wall after mastectomy.

    Two patients with local recurrence on the chest wall subsequent to mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) are presented. One recurrence was invasive carcinoma and the second was DCIS. Excision and chest wall irradiation, together with chemotherapy in the first patient, have provided subsequent disease-free survivals of 6 and 12 years respectively. Although mastectomy for DCIS is almost always curative, the possibility of local recurrence requires careful surveillance. ( info)

3/519. Recurrent ductal carcinoma in situ after total mastectomy.

    A case report is presented of a woman with recurrent DCIS occurring several years following a total mastectomy, the diagnosis of which was aided by a subpectoral saline implant. A discussion of factors associated with recurrence and a review of the literature is provided. A role for selective use of mammography in screening postmastectomy reconstructed breasts in patients at high risk for recurrence is suggested. ( info)

4/519. Ductal branch-oriented minimal pancreatectomy: two cases of successful treatment.

    Two patients with intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma of the pancreas were successfully treated by ductal branch-oriented minimal pancreatectomy. We propose this novel less invasive ductal branch-oriented pancreatectomy, as indicated for benign ductal ectasia of the pancreas. The cystically dilated branch duct is identified by intraoperative ultrasonography, intraoperative balloon pancreatography, and injection of indigocarmine into the cyst. The cystically dilated branch is resected from the surrounding pancreas together with minimal removal of the pancreatic parenchyma. The communicating duct and cutting margins are tightly ligated to prevent pancreatic juice leakage and fistula. A drainage tube is placed in the main pancreatic duct whenever possible. Histopathologic examination of the transected branch duct is necessary to check for mucosal extension of dysplastic epithelium. This ductal branch-oriented minimal pancreatectomy is the least invasive pancreatectomy and a suitable operation for branch-type ductal ectasia of the pancreas, which is usually benign. ( info)

5/519. Metastatic epidural spinal cord compression.

    OBJECTIVES: To provide an overview on the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression (MESCC). DATA SOURCES: Published articles, book chapters, and research reports. CONCLUSIONS: MESCC is a common oncologic emergency that requires prompt recognition and emergency treatment to relieve pain and preserve neurologic function. The signs and symptoms of MESCC are easily detected and can be integral assessment components of the nursing care of any patient with a solid tumor. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE: nurses can have a dramatic impact on preventing neurologic complications caused by this oncologic metastatic problem. When neurologic compromise is not prevented or reversed, nurses also can provide expert care to patients and families in the rehabilitation phase of MESCC. ( info)

6/519. Possible drug-associated pancreatitis after paclitaxel-cremophor administration.

    paclitaxel, a relatively new antineoplastic agent, is associated with numerous side effects, including two reported cases of pancreatitis. Our patient also developed paclitaxel-associated pancreatitis. Several companion drugs, including steroids, diphenhydramine, histamine2 blockers, serotonin type 3 antagonists, and other chemotherapeutic agents administered with paclitaxel, must be considered as possible causes of pancreatitis. In addition, paclitaxel is a hydrophobic agent that requires a vehicle, cremophor (CrEL), for solubility. Intravenous cyclosporine also requires CrEL and has been associated with pancreatitis. In the cerulein-induced pancreatitis rat model, paclitaxel with dimethyl sulfoxide as a vehicle prevents pancreatitis, suggesting that another causal agent is responsible. Animal studies of CrEL as a single agent may be required to settle this question, but for now, awareness that paclitaxel may be associated with pancreatitis may lead to earlier treatment of this potentially fatal complication. ( info)

7/519. Thoracic esophagectomy combined with pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy in a one-stage procedure: report of a case.

    We present herein the case of a patient who underwent a thoracic esophagectomy and pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy in a one-stage procedure for synchronous double primary cancer of the thoracic esophagus and the head of the pancreas (intraductal papillary tumor). To reconstruct the upper alimentary tract with the stomach, the gastroduodenal artery and right gastroepiploic vein were successfully skeletonized and preserved. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient is currently well, 5 years after surgery. ( info)

8/519. Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumors: an entity which is infrequent and difficult to diagnose.

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumor of the pancreas is currently considered to be a tumor which is an entity of its own, different from classic pancreatic ductal carcinoma. It is basically characterized by slow growth and low malignancy potential, as well as by the production of mucin. The aim of this study is to contribute to world literature some clarification of its natural history, clinical presentation, the most useful diagnostic tests, methods of detection of stromal invasion and handling of treatment. METHODOLOGY: Of 297 pancreatectomies undertaken at the "12 de Octubre" hospital between May 1985 and January 1998, only 1 case of Intraductal papillary-mucinous tumor was found. We have revised 127 cases published in 10 series over the last 10 years. We also contribute a review of our own case. RESULTS: These tumors, which are very infrequent, produce non-specific symptoms, with long latency periods from the first symptom up to stromal invasion. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed alterations in 100% of cases where this was undertaken. Tumor-related mortality was zero amongst patients with non-invasive tumor who underwent surgery. None of the cases published presented upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. This indicated the correct surgery and led us to our diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm the low frequency and difficulty of diagnosis, the sensitivity of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, the difficulty of early detection of stromal invasion, and the high survival rate in cases where resection is done before this occurs. early diagnosis and treatment is therefore of utmost importance. ( info)

9/519. The risks of treating keloids with radiotherapy.

    The risk of carcinogenesis from radiation exposure is well known. It has been questioned for some time therefore, whether it is wise to treat benign disease with radiotherapy. We report a case of a patient who developed bilateral breast carcinomas almost 30 years after treatment of chest wall keloids with radiotherapy. There are only anecdotal reports in the literature of malignancies following treatment of keloids with radiotherapy. We review these reports and discuss the safety of this approach to the management of keloid scars. ( info)

10/519. Lichenoid dermatitis in paraneoplastic pemphigus: a pathogenic trigger of epitope spreading?

    BACKGROUND: In select cases, lichen planus has been observed to be a paraneoplastic condition sometimes associated with paraneoplastic pemphigus, a disease featuring autoantibodies directed against plakin proteins, desmogleins 3 and 1, and a still uncharacterized 170-kd antigen. Epitope spreading describes the phenomenon where underlying chronic inflammation leads to the sequential recognition of new epitopes on self-proteins over time. OBSERVATIONS: Five of 6 patients diagnosed as having paraneoplastic pemphigus had concomitant clinical and histological features of lichen planus. In 1 patient, results of the initial indirect immunofluorescence on rat bladder were negative and only 2 of the 5 antigens were identified by immunoprecipitation. After 1 year of worsening disease, repeated testing confirmed the presence of antibodies directed against all 6 of the implicated antigens, supportive of our hypothesis that epitope spreading may occur in paraneoplastic pemphigus. CONCLUSIONS: lichenoid eruptions may predispose to an early evolutionary stage of paraneoplastic pemphigus. Cell-mediated autoimmunity at the dermoepidermal junction may promote the exposure of self-antigens and the development of subsequent and progressive humoral autoimmunity. As such, paraneoplastic pemphigus may demonstrate epitope spreading in a human, humoral-mediated autoimmune disease. ( info)
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