Cases reported "Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine"

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1/14. Angiomatoid neuroendocrine carcinoma of the thymus: report of a distinctive morphological variant of neuroendocrine tumor of the thymus resembling a vascular neoplasm.

    Three cases of primary thymic neuroendocrine tumors characterized by prominent angiomatoid features that resembled a vascular neoplasm are presented. The patients were all men between 52 and 59 years of age who presented with chest pain and shortness of breath attributable to a large anterior mediastinal mass. The lesions ranged in size from 6 cm to 15 cm in greatest diameter, and were grossly soft and well circumscribed, but not encapsulated. The cut surface was remarkable for multiple blood-filled cyst-like spaces admixed with focal solid, hemorrhagic areas. Histologically, the tumors contained multiple cystically dilated spaces filled with blood which imparted the lesion with a striking angiomatoid appearance. The walls of the cysts were lined by a monotonous proliferation of round to oval cells with distinct cell borders, round central nuclei, and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Mitotic activity was present in all cases and varied from 3 to 8 mitoses per 10 high-power fields. Immunohistochemical studies performed in two cases showed positivity of the tumor cells for keratin, Leu 7, and synaptophysin, and focal chromogranin positivity in one. Follow-up information obtained in two patients showed that both had died of tumor 4 and 8 years after initial diagnosis. The present cases show an unusual morphological appearance of thymic neuroendocrine tumors that may be mistaken for a vascular neoplasm. Immunohistochemical stains may be of importance in such instances in arriving at the correct diagnosis.
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2/14. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the posterior mediastinum: a possible primary lesion.

    A paravertebral mass was noted in the posterior mediastinum in a 47-year-old man. Microscopically, the tumor showed solid and trabecular patterns and consisted of poorly differentiated atypical cells that often formed Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettelike glands. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells expressed both epithelial and neuroendocrine markers, including cytokeratin (AE1/3), carcinoembryonic antigen, epithelial membrane antigen, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin a, and synaptophysin, but were negative for CD99 (MIC2). Ultrastructurally, numerous desmosomes and neurosecretory granules were identified in the tumor cells. The present lesion was a primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the posterior mediastinum-an unusual site for such a lesion.
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keywords = rosette
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3/14. Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with skeletal muscle differentiation: report of three cases.

    Three cases of neuroendocrine carcinoma showing skeletal muscle differentiation are presented. The tumors were located in the skin and subcutaneous tissue, the urinary bladder, and the nasal cavity respectively, and were composed by two cell types admixed intimately with each other. One cell type had features identical to those seen in conventional small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, including scanty cytoplasm, round nuclei with fine granular chromatin, immunohistochemical reactivity for neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin and cytokeratins, and electron-dense granules on ultrastructural examination. The second cell type was either plasmacytoid or elongated and straplike, with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and irregular nuclei with prominent nucleoli. These cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for desmin, sarcomeric actin, myoglobin, and myogenin. They also exhibited ultrastructural evidence of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation in the form of contractile filaments with abortive Z-band formation. An origin from a cell capable of dual differentiation toward neuroendocrine and rhabdomyoblastic elements is postulated for these tumors.
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4/14. Retrorectal cystic hamartoma: report of 5 cases with malignancy arising in 2.

    BACKGROUND: Retrorectal cystic hamartomas, or tailgut cysts, are rare congenital lesions that typically present as presacral masses. These lesions are frequently clinically unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Malignant change is extremely rare. Only 10 additional cases with associated malignancy were recovered from the literature. We describe the clinicopathologic features of 5 cases, including 2 cases with malignant transformation. RESULTS: All patients were women (age range, 36-69 years). The most common symptoms were pain with defecation and rectal bleeding. One patient was asymptomatic. All lesions presented as multicystic presacral masses and all were surgically resected. The lesions varied in size from approximately 2 to 12 cm (average, 9.5 cm) and overall had similar histology composed of a variety of epithelial linings (stratified squamous, transitional, and simple or ciliated pseudostratified columnar). skin adnexa, neural elements, and heterologous mesenchymal tissue, discriminators between retrorectal cystic hamartoma and teratoma, were not identified. Arising in association with the cysts was a focus of adenocarcinoma in one case and a neuroendocrine carcinoma in another. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical diagnoses in our cases were often delayed, which in part may be due to unfamiliarity with this entity. The main diagnostic difficulty is distinction from presacral mature cystic teratomas and rectal duplication cysts. Tailgut cysts require complete surgical excisions to prevent future recurrences and to preclude possible malignant transformation. Meticulous gross examination and adequate sampling are important to document the exact nature of these cysts and to rule out possible coexisting malignancies, which may be focal.
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5/14. Primary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the parotid gland: immunohistochemical and molecular analysis of two cases.

    Pulmonary large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a newly proposed clinicopathologic entity; a few cases of LCNEC have been reported in other sites, such as the uterine cervix and the thymus. In the salivary glands, LCNEC is extremely rare and is not recognized as a specific entity in the world health organization classification. We retrospectively reviewed from our files 1675 cases of surgically resected primary parotid gland tumors and found 2 cases of LCNEC that fulfilled the criteria of pulmonary LCNEC. These cases occurred in 72- and 73-year-old men who had short histories of enlarging parotid gland tumors. The tumors were composed of large cells that exhibited organoid, solid, trabecular, and rosette-like growth patterns with a high mitotic rate and a conspicuous tendency for necrosis. The tumor cells were polygonal and characterized by a moderate nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio, coarse chromatin, and conspicuous nucleoli. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that the tumor cells were positive for six general neuroendocrine markers, cytokeratin, p53, bcl-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and cyclin d1. Markedly reduced expressions of p21Waf1 and p27Kip1 were also noticed. The Ki-67 labeling index was more than 50% in both cases. One case showed loss of heterozygosity at TP53 accompanied by a p53 gene point mutation. loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 9p21 was detected in both cases; one was accompanied by a p16 gene silent point mutation. Both patients died of the disease, with recurrence 5 months and 4 years after surgery, respectively. These findings indicate that LCNEC is a rare but distinct salivary gland tumor with highly aggressive biologic behavior. Multiple alterations of cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressor genes may play an important role in presenting the biologic characteristics of this rare parotid gland tumor.
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6/14. Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of two cases.

    We report two cases of primary large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the gallbladder, which, to the best of our knowledge, represent the first description of this entity. One of the tumors consisted entirely of LCNEC, whereas the second tumor was composed of LCNEC and the more common intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. Both tumors were morphologically similar to their pulmonary counterpart and were characterized by large cells with prominent nucleoli, coarse chromatin, and a high mitotic rate. The cells showed an organoid growth pattern with rosette formation and frequent areas of necrosis. Panendocrine markers were expressed in a variable proportion of tumor cells in both cases, and one of the cases also showed focal positivity for type 2 somatostatin receptors. One of the tumors followed a rapidly fatal course despite aggressive surgical treatment and chemotherapy administration, and the second patient is still alive and disease-free 12 months after surgery. The description of these two cases of LCNEC of the gallbladder is significant for two reasons. From an academic standpoint, we now know that all the neuroendocrine tumors described in other organs can arise de novo in the gallbladder. More importantly, however, the recognition of this rare tumor type carries important clinical implications in regard to the use of chemotherapeutic agents and supplemental treatments (for example, somatostatin analogs).
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keywords = rosette, formation
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7/14. Intra-epithelial neuroendocrine carcinoma of the nasal cavity.

    We describe a distinctive neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) that proliferated intra-epithelially. The tumor was 35 mm in diameter and arose from the right superior turbinate of a 46-year-old woman. Histologically, the tumor exhibited papillary growth and the tumor cells were localized in the thickened mucosal epithelium. The tumor cells had round to oval and vesicular or hyperchromatic nuclei, and cohered without any specific structure such as a fibrillary background, rosette or glandular structure. No stromal invasion by the tumor was observed. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase focally. In addition, many tumor cells expressed cytokeratin (AE1/AE3 and CAM 5.2), mostly with characteristic perinuclear dot-like patterns. Electron microscopy revealed focal but well-eveloped cytoplasmic processes containing arrays of microtubules and a few dense core granules. The tumor was considered to be a poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) that exhibited exceptional intra-epithelial proliferation. The tumor completely disappeared after the stereotactic radiosurgery and has not recurred for 40 months. It might be difficult to distinguish a poorly differentiated NEC in the sinonasal region from other neuroectodermal tumors, including olfactory neuroblastoma, but the differential diagnosis is important because each tumor has different clinicopathological characteristics.
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keywords = rosette
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8/14. Primary duodenal carcinoma showing divergent growth patterns as determined by microdissection-based mutational genotyping.

    Primary duodenal adenocarcinoma accounts for less than 0.5% of all gastrointestinal cancers. We report a case of duodenal adenocarcinoma with highly divergent growth patterns consisting of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma proven to arise as a single neoplasm of monoclonal origin, as demonstrated by microdissection-based mutational profiling. Multicomponent growth patterns, as seen in this case, can occasionally be encountered in gastrointestinal malignancies and have led to speculation about the pathogenesis. The methods used to clearly establish monoclonal origin based on the unique profiling of mutational damage can address fundamental issues related to tumor development and progression, while providing cogent clinical information. Our findings confirm the great potential for intestinal epithelial cells to differentiate along different histogenetic lines during tumor progression.
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9/14. anal canal neuroendocrine carcinoma with Pagetoid extension.

    A case of anal canal neuroendocrine carcinoma with Pagetoid intraepithelial extension is presented. An 80-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a complaint of pain in the anorectal region. Clinical examination revealed a hard and fixed mass in the anal canal, and subsequent biopsy of the lesion showed it to be a carcinoma. The surgically resected specimen showed a solid tumor measuring 3.4 x 3.2 cm within the area from the surgical anal canal to the anatomical anal canal. Tumor cells proliferated predominantly with compact nests. Many tumor cells had a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, dispersed chromatin, and conspicuous nucleoli. Additionally, neoplastic cells focally formed a glandular structure. Some polygonal neoplastic cells were small with round nuclei. A rosette-like arrangement was also focally observed. In addition, tumor cells exhibited Pagetoid extension into the overlying epithelium of the histological anal canal. Both the underlying original neoplastic cells and the Pagetoid spreading tumor cells showed cytoplasmic granules positive for Grimelius staining and immunopositivity for carcinoembryonic antigen, synaptophysin and cytokeratins 7 and 20. These findings are highly suggestive of neuroendocrine differentiation of adenocarcinoma cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of anal canal neuroendocrine carcinoma with Pagetoid extension into the overlying epithelium of the histological anal canal.
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keywords = rosette
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10/14. Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of inguinal lymph node.

    Ninety-seven percent of neuroendocrine carcinomas are located in the gastrointestinal tract or in the bronchopulmonary tree. Inguinal lymph nodes as the primary tumor site for neuroendocrine carcinoma represent a very unusual location, and have only been described in 2 patient series in the literature. A 64-year-old, previously healthy, Caucasian female presented with a 2-month history of an enlarged inguinal lymph node on the right side. The removed lymph node showed histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of neuroendocrine differentiation (positive for synaptophysin, cytokeratin 20, neuron-specific enolase and chromogranin a). Although extensive investigations including repeated CT and NMR scans, classical endoscopy, wireless capsule endoscopy of the small intestine, octreotide- and MIBG scintigraphy were performed, no other primary tumor was found. Furthermore, there was no evidence of Merkel cell carcinoma on dermatological examinations. A possible explanation for the presence of neuroendocrine carcinomas within the lymph nodes is malignant transformation of preexisting intranodal epithelial nests, which have previously been described in lymph nodes located close to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, breast tissue and pancreas. Since the surgical removal of the affected lymph node, the patient has now been disease-free for 42 months. We therefore consider our case to represent a primary undifferentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma in an inguinal lymph node.
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