Cases reported "Carcinoma, Squamous Cell"

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1/51. Malignant craniopharyngioma.

    Craniopharyngiomas are histologically and cytologically benign epithelial tumors of the central nervous system that may be locally aggressive and tend to recur after excision. Malignant change in craniopharyngiomas is extremely rare; we found only 4 such reports in the literature. In this report, we describe a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in a previously benign craniopharyngioma in a 42-year-old woman. The patient was diagnosed with craniopharyngioma in 1982; during the subsequent 15 years she experienced 7 tumor recurrences, for which surgical resections and 3 courses of radiotherapy were performed. In 1998, the tumor recurred with involvement of the nasal cavity and sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. Histologic evaluation revealed foci of typical adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma associated with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The transition of typical craniopharyngioma to squamous cell carcinoma was well demonstrated, suggesting that carcinoma arose from the underlying craniopharyngioma. radiation may have been a contributing factor to carcinogenesis in this case.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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2/51. radiation-induced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in situ.

    A report of radiation-induced squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the esophagus is presented. This report indicates that the patient developed the carcinoma in situ many years after chest wall irradiation for breast cancer treatment. A review of the literature with respect to carcinogenesis after radiotherapy is included and recommendations for the follow-up of patients having mediastinal radiation are suggested.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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3/51. Human papillomavirus type 16-associated primary squamous cell carcinoma of the rectum.

    Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the colorectum is an extremely rare malignancy of unknown etiology and pathogenesis. We describe an 87-year-old man with primary SCC of the rectum. Routine histology demonstrated a squamous metaplasia-dysplasia sequence of the rectal mucosa with subsequent malignant transformation. Molecular biologic analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization revealed the presence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) dna within metaplastic, dysplastic, and SCC lesions and in tumor-free rectal mucosa. Moreover, nested reverse-transcription PCR showed transcriptional activity of the viral E6/E7 oncogenes in tumor tissue and tumor-free rectal mucosa. By contrast, 4 typical adenocarcinomas of the rectum and their adjacent normal mucosa were found to be negative for HPV by nested PCR. In line with the well-established concept of HPV-associated anogenital carcinogenesis, our results strongly suggest an etiologic role of HPV-16 in the pathogenesis of the metaplasia-dysplasia-SCC sequence in the case described.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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4/51. Widespread cutaneous carcinomas associated with human papillomaviruses 5, 14 and 20 after introduction of methotrexate in two long-term PUVA-treated patients.

    BACKGROUND: PUVA treatment for patients with severe psoriasis has been demonstrated to be highly effective. However, an increased risk of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancers has been reported. It is generally accepted that the risk of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) is significantly increased in patients with long-term puva therapy. The role of methotrexate (MTX) and infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses which may act as cocarcinogens is poorly documented. case reports: Two cases of multiple SCCs associated with numerous PUVA keratoses and PUVA freckles after long-term puva therapy and subsequent treatment with MTX are presented. In 1 case, the tumor progressed to metastatic SCC. Tumors and scrapings of psoriatic skin lesions were analyzed for the presence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. The genotype of HPV-5, -14 and -20 was detected in scrapings and skin tumors using PCR amplification. CONCLUSION: These observations support the concept that long-term PUVA treatment is carcinogenic and rise questions concerning an additional influence of MTX in the development and progression of skin cancer. The risk of metastatic SCC seems to be underestimated in high-dose PUVA-treated patients due to longer latency for developing metastases and the small number of studies with long-term follow-up. Treatment with MTX should be considered cautiously in patients previously exposed to high doses of PUVA. The presence of oncogenic HPVs in carcinomas and psoriatic skin lesions detected only with the highly sensitive nested PCR method is not necessarily a proof of their implication in skin carcinogenesis.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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5/51. Differences in EBNA2 and LMP-1 carboxy terminal region sequences of Epstein-Barr virus type A between the tumors in a multiple cancer patient.

    Using PCR, type A Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection was demonstrated in a squamous cell carcinoma of the maxilla (in a 52-year-old man) and the tongue of the same patient 18 years later (at the age of 70). Furthermore, at the age of 72, this patient developed an EBV-infected anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Analysis of the terminal regions of the EBV genome revealed a monoclonal proliferation of EBV-infected lymphoma cells. However, sequence analysis of the EBV revealed a slight difference in the EBNA2 regions between the virus-infected lymphoma and the squamous cell carcinomas. The mutations at 48991 (G-->T) and 48998 (C-->A) were demonstrated in the lymphoma. Although the squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue occurred after an interval of 18 years, the mutation site in the carcinomas was the same, 49137 (A-->G), as compared with B95-8 strain EBV EBNA2. The mutations at 48991 and at 49137 were associated with amino acid changes, Arg-->Met and Thr-->Ala, respectively, but the alteration at 48998 was a silent mutation. Thirty-bp deletion in the LMP-1 carboxy terminal region was demonstrated in the virus-infected lymphoma, but not in the squamous cell carcinomas. On the other hand, HTLV-1 proviral dna (tax, gag and env) was not detected in the lymphoma, nor was HPV demonstrated in the squamous cell carcinomas, although Okinawa is known as an HTLV-1 and HPV prevalence region. The T-cell receptor beta gene rearrangement was demonstrated in the lymphoma, but the t(2;5) fusion transcript was not detected using PCR. cytogenetic analysis of the lymphoma cells showed a complex hypertriploid karyotype with 76XY. The type A EBV infection might play a role in the carcinogenesis of the tumors of our patient. Interestingly, the infected virus genome sequences, the EBNA2 and LMP-1 regions, which were closely associated with carcinogenesis in the squamous cell carcinomas and the lymphoma, showed slight differences.
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ranking = 2
keywords = carcinogenesis
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6/51. Metachronous multiple carcinoma of lip after surgery for gingival carcinoma: a case report.

    A case of multiple carcinoma of the lower lip probably induced by repeated bite trauma due to lack of sensation is reported. A reduction in immunocompetence by carboplatin (CBDCA) might be an additional condition for the carcinogenesis. This case suggests that the reconstruction of the sensory nerve is important after resection of a malignant tumor of the head and neck region.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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7/51. Minute lung carcinoma associated with focal honeycombed lesion.

    We report a case of minute lung carcinoma that developed in a focal honeycombed lesion in the right lung. A 70-year-old man presented hemosputum, and a cytological examination result was at class IV. A right lower lobectomy of the lung was performed. Microscopically, the thickened alveolar wall revealed tumor cells indicating a minute carcinoma, and showed squamous hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia, with the carcinoma in the distal airway epithelium. This peripheral lung carcinoma in a focal honeycombed lesion demonstrated the various stages of multistep carcinogenesis, which is recognized in hilar type squamous cell carcinoma. To date, the association between a honeycombed lesion and lung cancer has been poorly described. Here we have presented clear evidence of the association of this carcinoma with the honeycombed lesion.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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8/51. Squamous cell carcinoma in chronic lymphedema: case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in chronic lymphedema is rare; only nine cases have been reported. OBJECTIVE: To present the evolution of SCC in chronic lymphedema. methods: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: The tumor was treated by wide excision and covered by a skin graft. CONCLUSION: In most of the other reported SCC cases in lymphedema, there are additional factors for carcinogenesis. There is no additional carcinogenic factor except for chronic lymphedema in our case. This strongly supports that lymphedema itself is one of the carcinogenic factors for not only angiosarcoma but also SCC.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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9/51. Molecular cloning, identification and analysis of lung squamous cell carcinoma-related genes.

    OBJECTIVE: To clone and identify genes differentially expressed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). methods: A subtracted cDNA library of human LSCC was constructed by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Through screening, the subtracted library clones, representing mRNAs that are truly differentially expressed in LSCC but not in normal lung tissues, were selected out to identify by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in 12 patients of LSCC and performed dna sequencing. Nucleic acid homology searches were performed using the BLAST program. Partial novel genes were detected by Northern blot. RESULTS: By this technique, we obtained 10 differentially expressed gene cDNA fragments of LSCC. Among them six were already known genes; two sequences were already identified but their functions were still unknown (hypothetical protein); two were novel (GenBank accession number were AF363068 and AY032661, respectively). The results from semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcription expression level of these clones including PPP1CB, caluminin, S100A2, HSNOV1, OCIA and AY032661 was down-regulated in 12 cases of LSCC, while the transcription of HSP90, ferritin, gp96 and AF363068 was up-regulated in same cases. CONCLUSION: SSH is a powerful technique of high sensitivity for the detection of differential gene expression in LSCC and an effective method to clone novel genes. Six already known genes identified by SSH technique have been already implicated in the pathogenesis of lung carcinogenesis, or they are involved in immunological defense mechanism in human body. Two hypothetical proteins probably also play an important role in lung cancer pathogenesis. The function of two novel genes in lung carcinogenesis is under research.
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ranking = 2
keywords = carcinogenesis
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10/51. association of chromium exposure with multiple primary cancers in the nasal cavity.

    A 56-year-old man who had worked at a chromate factory for 13 years developed squamous cell carcinoma of the left nasal cavity 11 years after retirement. He received intra-arterial chemotherapy, followed by surgery. Two years later, an adenocarcinoma was identified in the same nasal cavity just above the previous surgical region. He underwent medial maxillectomy in combination with postoperative irradiation. He has been disease free for 5 years after the second surgery. Microsatellite markers were examined in the second tumor specimen as a possible factor for carcinogenesis; however, replication errors were not observed in any of four loci (D2S123, D3S1067, TP53, D18S474) tested. The present case seems to have resulted from long-term exposure to chromium and, to our knowledge, is the first reported case with multiple primary cancers in the nasal cavity associated with chromium exposure.
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ranking = 1
keywords = carcinogenesis
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