Cases reported "Carcinoma, Squamous Cell"

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1/372. Verruciform xanthoma associated with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) is a rare lesion of unknown etiology that is typically solitary and predominantly located within the oral cavity. Less commonly, they arise on the skin, with the majority of cases occurring in anogenital sites. They can be confused clinically with verruca vulgaris, condyloma, leukoplakia, verrucous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Histologic features include acanthosis with uniform elongation of the rete ridges and xanthomatous cells that lie in and are typically confined to the papillary dermis. Although epidermal atypia is not a characteristic finding, we describe an unusual case of VX that has features of both VX and squamous cell carcinoma. In addition, there was a VX with typical histologic characteristics located at a separate site in the same patient. This case is also the first to our knowledge to be reported on the neck and axilla and is the third case associated with cutaneous graft versus host disease secondary to bone marrow transplant for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
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2/372. Microsurgical reconstruction in recurrent oral cancer: use of a second free flap in the same patient.

    Primary microsurgical reconstruction is the treatment of choice for ablative defects of oral carcinoma. As a result of this trend, more and more patients with recurrent oral carcinoma who have been initially treated with surgical excision and reconstructed with free flaps are being seen. However, a second microsurgical reconstruction attempt in these cases raises questions about the flap choices, availability of recipient vessels, and effects of previous treatment modalities. Herein, 35 patients with perioral carcinoma who had two successive tumor resections and reconstruction with free flaps on each occasion are presented. A total of 75 free tissue transfers were carried out for the first and second reconstructions. After the first tumor resection, 28 radial forearm fasciocutaneous flaps, 7 fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, 1 iliac osteomyocutaneous flap, and 2 rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps were used. For reconstruction after the recurrence, 17 radial forearm fasciocutaneous flaps, 13 fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, 3 rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, 2 anterolateral thigh flaps, 1 jejunum flap, and 1 tensor fasciae latae flap were used. More vascularized bone transfers were performed during the second reconstruction since the excision for the recurrence frequently required segmental mandibulectomy. The complete flap survival rate was 97.3 percent and 94.6 percent with a reexploration rate of 7.9 percent and 13.5 percent for the first and second free tissue transfers, respectively. The mean follow-up time throughout the procedures was 37.5 months. disease-free interval between reconstructions was 20.8 months. At the time of evaluation, 54.3 percent of the patients were surviving an average of 19 months since the second reconstruction. The results suggest that free flaps represent an important option in reconstruction of recurrent perioral carcinoma cases undergoing reexcision. When used in this indication they are as safe and effective as the initial procedure.
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3/372. radium-induced malignant tumors of the mastoid and paranasal sinuses.

    In the records of 5,058 persons with therapeutic or occupational exposure to radium, 21 patients with carcinoma of the mastoid and 11 with malignant tumors of the paranasal sinuses were identified. Tumor induction times were 21-50 years for mastoid tumors (median, 33) and 19-52 years for paranasal sinus tumors (median, 34). Dosimetric data are given for the patients whose body burdens of radium have been measured. We found a high proportion of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, comprising 38% of the mastoid and 36% of the paranasal sinus tumors. Three patients had antecedent bone sarcoma at 20, 11, and 5 years, respectively, and a bone sarcoma was discovered at autopsy in a fourth patient. Radiographic changes in the mastoid and paranasal sinuses were similar to those seen in nonradium malignant tumors. More than 800 known persons exposed to radium before 1930 and another group of unknown size who received radium water or injections of radium from physicians are still alive and at risk of developing malignant tumors of the mastoid and paranasal sinuses.
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4/372. Anaplastic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in a patient with chronic cutaneous graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

    We describe an allogeneic bone marrow (BM) recipient who developed aggressive, metastasizing squamous cell cancer (SCC) of the skin, and discuss possible risk factors in the development of this secondary solid tumor. The patient had been treated with cyclosporine (CsA), methyl-prednisolone and thalidomide for 3 years because of extensive de novo chronic cutaneous GVHD occurring 1 year after BMT. Ten years after BMT a locally invasive and metastasizing SCC occurred on the patient's neck, and diagnosis was confirmed by H&E histopathology and cytokeratin-immunohistochemistry. Analysis of genomic dna did not reveal p53 mutations nor were HPV sequences detectable. risk factors included conditioning for BMT with total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide (Cy), immunosuppressive treatment for GVHD, and extensive exposure to UV radiation before and after BMT. Despite surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) the patient died 1 year after the diagnosis of SCC.
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5/372. paraneoplastic syndromes of leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and hypercalcemia associated with squamous cell carcinoma.

    paraneoplastic syndromes including leukocytosis, thrombocytosis and hypercalcemia are occasionally seen in patients suffering from progressive malignant disorders. Recent studies have revealed the production of several humoral factors by tumor cells and normal splenic cells of tumor-bearing patients to be the major cause of these reactions. granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), parathyroid hormone-related peptide, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated. We describe a 58-year-old Japanese man with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on the left sole, which developed in a deep linear scar after a train crash. He developed pulmonary and lymph node metastases, then leukocytosis (57,110/mm3 with 95% neutrophilia), thrombocytosis (86.3 x 10(4)/mm3), and hypercalcemia (7.0 mEq/1), and finally cachexia, followed by death. serum G-CSF, IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and TNF-beta were determined; revealing G-CSF and IL-1 beta levels were above the upper limits of their normal ranges at 39.2 pg/ml and 4.63 pg/ml, respectively. It is probable that these humoral factors were partially responsible for the paraneoplastic syndromes induced by the cutaneous SCC with metastasis in the present case.
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6/372. Immunohistochemical detection of parathyroid hormone-related protein in a cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma causing humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy.

    Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is a cancer-related hypercalcemia caused by production of humoral factors by malignant cells in patients without bone metastases. Squamous cell carcinomas are the tumors most frequently associated with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy, and parathyroid hormone-related protein is the main humoral factor implicated. In spite of the fact that normal keratinocytes produce parathyroid hormone-related protein, it is highly unusual for patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the skin to present with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy. We present a well-documented case of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma complicated by hypercalcemia in a patient with high levels of plasma parathyroid hormone-related protein and immunohistochemical evidence of high parathyroid hormone-related protein production by the tumoral cells.
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7/372. temporal bone tumours in patients irradiated for nasopharyngeal neoplasm.

    radiation-associated tumours are rare complications of radiotherapy. This study seeks to highlight and discuss the clinically challenging problem of radiation-associated tumours (rats) in the temporal bones of seven patients previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal neoplasm. Seven patients (six males and one female) with radiation-associated temporal bone tumours are presented (five squamous cell carcinomas, one osteogenic sarcoma and one chondrosarcoma). The initial nasopharyngeal disease for which radiotherapy was indicated was nasopharyngeal carcinoma (six patients) and nasopharyngeal lymphoma (one patient). The latency period between radiotherapy and presentation of temporal bone tumours ranged from five years to 30 years with a mean of 12.9 years. All the patients underwent surgical tumour resection. Three patients had post-operative radiotherapy and one patient underwent pre- and post-operative chemotherapy. Two patients died from the disease within three months of treatment with one patient surviving 36 months at the time of writing. One patient died from an unrelated medical condition three months after surgery. With refinement in radiotherapy techniques and the resultant increase in patient survival, there may be more patients with radiation-associated tumours in the future. It remains imperative for clinicians to be vigilant when patients previously irradiated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma present with otological symptoms as the key to the successful management of this condition lies in the early detection and expedient treatment of this difficult disease.
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8/372. Squamous cell carcinoma arising in an intradiploic epidermoid cyst.

    A 71-year-old woman presented with the symptoms of a posterior cranial fossa mass. CT and MRI revealed a lytic lesion in the occipital bone and a tumour infiltrating the dura mater, venous sinuses and cerebellum. Histopathology demonstrated a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma arising from a primarily intradiploic epidermoid cyst. Despite surgery and radiotherapy, the tumour progressed and the patient died 1 year later.
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9/372. Primary intraosseous carcinoma of the mandible with probable origin from reduced enamel epithelium.

    This report describes a case of primary intraosseous carcinoma (PIOC) arising de novo in the mandible. The patient was a 74-year-old woman and an early PIOC was found incidentally during histopathological examination of the pericoronal tissue obtained at extraction of a deeply impacted third molar. The curetted soft tissues consisted of a microinvasive, keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with scattered foci of carcinoma cells showing calcification; stromal osseous metaplasia was also observed. After additional treatment, the patient has remained free of disease for 2 years. Since the tumor was completely enclosed in the bone, the only identifiable source of the present PIOC is the reduced enamel epithelium. Despite its rarity, this case emphasizes the importance of careful histologic examination of all apparently innocuous dental follicles that are removed surgically.
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10/372. carcinoma of the penis metastasizing to the dorsal spine. A case report.

    carcinoma of the penis tends to have a predictable route of spread by direct invasion and by regional lymphatic involvement to the inguinal group of lymph nodes. blood-borne distant spread is rare, last to occur, and is seen in 1-3% of cases. Metastasis to the spine is even rarer. We encountered one such case who presented with spinal metastasis, as documented by the whole body bone scan, and this was later followed by involvement of the inguinal nodes. This case is unique in its site of metastatic presentation as well as its pattern of presentation.
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