Cases reported "Carcinoma, Squamous Cell"

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1/21. lung and aero-digestive cancers in young marijuana smokers.

    Marijuana has been shown to be one of the commonly abused substances in the world, especially among teenagers and young adults. Although its addictive potential and psychomotor side-effects have been widely publicized, the issue of possible carcinogenicity is not as well perceived. Marijuana smoke contains many of the same organic and inorganic compounds that are carcinogens, co-carcinogens, or tumor promoters found in tobacco smoke. We have encountered several young marijuana users with no history of tobacco smoking or other significant risk factors who were diagnosed to have lung or other aero-digestive cancers in our practice. Although there are several experimental and epidemiological studies suggesting an association of marijuana use as a possible cause of cancers, this issue remains controversial. It is hoped that our case presentation can help to stimulate further awareness and research into this issue.
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2/21. Establishment of novel human esophageal cancer cell line in relation to telomere dynamics and telomerase activity.

    The telomere and the telomerase in human esophageal cancer are not yet completely understood. The regulatory mechanism of telomerase activity and telomere dynamics has drawn considerable attention. It is generally assumed that when telomerase has been activated, no further telomere shortening should ensue; however, a much more complex pattern of telomere dynamics may exist in telomerase-positive cancer cells. A novel human esophageal cancer cell line (KAN-ES) was established and characterized. Using KAN-ES and its serially passaged subclones up to the 55th generation, we determined the alteration of telomere length (TRF), telomerase activity (TA), telomerase rna expression (hTR), population doubling time, karyotype, and cytokeratin 14 expression during the process of establishing a cancer cell line. We found that the TRF was maintained between 4.0 and 5.0 kb during the serial passages, despite sustained high TA (assessed by an in vitro TRAP assay). No close relationships were found among TRF, TA, and hTR expression. TA and telomere dynamics were not associated with cellular growth ability and differentiation. However, the number of population doublings showed significant correlations with both the TA and doubling times. In conclusion, these dissociations between telomere dynamics and TA support the existence of additional controls on TRF in cancer cells. KAN-ES and its restored subclones should prove a valuable resource for esophageal cancer research.
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3/21. pathology related to chronic arsenic exposure.

    Millions now suffer the effects of chronic arseniasis related to environmental arsenic exposure. The biological mechanisms responsible for arsenic-induced toxicity and especially chronic effects, including cancer, are not well known. The U.S. Armed Forces Institute of pathology (AFIP) is participating in an international research effort to improve this understanding by the development of the International Tissue and Tumor Repository for Chronic Arsenosis (ITTRCA). The ITTRCA obtains, archives, and makes available for research purposes, tissues from subjects exposed to arsenic. We provide here a short overview of arsenic-induced pathology, briefly describe arsenic-induced lesions in the skin and liver, and present five case reports from the ITTRCA. arsenic-induced skin pathology includes hyperkeratosis, pigmentation changes, Bowen disease, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinomas. A unique spectrum of skin lesions, known as arsenical keratosis, is rather characteristic of chronic arseniasis. Bowen disease, or squamous cell carcinoma in situ of the skin, has been well documented as a consequence of arsenical exposure. A spectrum of liver lesions has also been attributed to chronic arseniasis. Of these, hepatocellular carcinoma, angiosarcoma, cirrhosis, and hepatoportal sclerosis have been associated with arsenic exposure. We present case reports that relate to these health conditions, namely, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and Bowen disease of the skin and hepatocellular carcinoma and angiosarcoma of the liver. Four patients had been treated with arsenical medications for such conditions as asthma, psoriasis, and syphilis, and one case occurred in a boy chronically exposed to arsenic in drinking water.
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4/21. Molecular cloning, identification and analysis of lung squamous cell carcinoma-related genes.

    OBJECTIVE: To clone and identify genes differentially expressed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). methods: A subtracted cDNA library of human LSCC was constructed by using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Through screening, the subtracted library clones, representing mRNAs that are truly differentially expressed in LSCC but not in normal lung tissues, were selected out to identify by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in 12 patients of LSCC and performed dna sequencing. Nucleic acid homology searches were performed using the BLAST program. Partial novel genes were detected by Northern blot. RESULTS: By this technique, we obtained 10 differentially expressed gene cDNA fragments of LSCC. Among them six were already known genes; two sequences were already identified but their functions were still unknown (hypothetical protein); two were novel (GenBank accession number were AF363068 and AY032661, respectively). The results from semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that the transcription expression level of these clones including PPP1CB, caluminin, S100A2, HSNOV1, OCIA and AY032661 was down-regulated in 12 cases of LSCC, while the transcription of HSP90, ferritin, gp96 and AF363068 was up-regulated in same cases. CONCLUSION: SSH is a powerful technique of high sensitivity for the detection of differential gene expression in LSCC and an effective method to clone novel genes. Six already known genes identified by SSH technique have been already implicated in the pathogenesis of lung carcinogenesis, or they are involved in immunological defense mechanism in human body. Two hypothetical proteins probably also play an important role in lung cancer pathogenesis. The function of two novel genes in lung carcinogenesis is under research.
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5/21. Obstructive sleep apnea in head and neck cancer patients post treatment ... something to consider?

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs due to enlarged tissue such as tonsils, base of tongue or palate, pharyngeal space narrowing, or decreased muscle tone of the pharyngeal dilator muscles. Treatments for head and neck cancer may cause physical changes resulting in OSA. Based on recent anecdotal experience and limited research available looking at the incidence of OSA in post treatment head and neck cancer patients, assessment for signs and symptoms of OSA by otorhinolaryngology nurses seems warranted. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of OSA in the patient with head and neck cancer may significantly improve the person's health and quality of life.
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6/21. Cutaneous undifferentiated small (Merkel) cell carcinoma, that developed synchronously with multiple actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinoma.

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is an uncommon undifferentiated neuroendocrine tumor, arising in skin mainly on sun-exposed areas. We present an unusual case of primary cutaneous undifferentiated small cell carcinoma that co-existed with six other lesions; 2 actinic keratoses, 3 squamous-cell carcinomas and a basal-cell carcinoma. HE stained sections revealed MCC located in the mid-dermis, co-existing with severe actinic keratosis. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells reacted to cytokeratin 20, epithelial membrane antigen, chromogranin and neuron specific enolase. This is an unusual case of cutaneous MCC co-existing with six other different lesions. The concurrent development of MCC, squamous-cell and basal-cell carcinoma in the same patient indicates the pluripotent epidermal stem cell origin of these tumors. Further research is needed to enlighten the factors inducing this divergent differentiation.
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7/21. The application of sentinel node radiolocalization to solid tumors of the head and neck: a 10-year experience.

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The goals of the research study were to develop an easily mastered, accurate, minimally invasive technique of sentinel node radiolocalization with biopsy (SNRLB) in the feline model; to compare it with blue-dye mapping techniques; and to test the applicability of sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy in three head and neck tumor types: N0 malignant melanoma, N0 Merkel cell carcinoma, and N0 squamous cell carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective consecutive series studies were performed in the feline model and in three head and neck tumor types: N0 malignant melanoma (43 patients), N0 Merkel cell carcinoma (8 patients), and N0 squamous cell carcinoma (20 patients). methods: The technique of sentinel node radiolocalization with biopsy was analyzed in eight felines and compared with blue-dye mapping. Patterns of sentinel node gamma emissions were recorded. Localization success rates were determined for blue dye and sentinel node with radiolocalization biopsy. In the human studies, all patients had sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy performed in a similar manner. On the morning of surgery, each patient had sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy of the sentinel lymph node performed using an intradermal or peritumoral injection of technetium tc 99m sulfur colloid. Sentinel nodes were localized on the skin surface using a handheld gamma detector. Gamma count measurements were obtained for the following: 1) the "hot" spot/node in vivo before incision, 2) the hot spot/node in vivo during dissection, 3) the hot spot/node ex vivo, 4) the lymphatic bed after hot spot/node removal, and 5) the background in the operating room. The first draining lymph node(s) was identified, and biopsy of the node was performed. The radioactive sentinel lymph node(s) was submitted separately for routine histopathological evaluation. Preoperative lymphoscintigrams were performed in patients with melanoma and patients with Merkel cell carcinoma. In patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the relationship between the sentinel node and the remaining lymphatic basin was studied and all patients received complete neck dissections. The accuracy of sentinel node radiolocalization with biopsy, the micrometastatic rate, the false-negative rate, and long-term recurrence rates were reported for each of the head and neck tumor types. In the melanoma study, the success of sentinel node localization was compared for sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy, blue-dye mapping, and lymphoscintigraphy. In the Merkel cell carcinoma study, localization rates were evaluated for sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy and lymphoscintigraphy. In the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma study, the localization rate of sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy and the predictive value of the sentinel node relative to the remaining lymphatic bed were determined. All results were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Across the different head and neck tumor types studied, sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy had a success rate approaching 95%. Sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy was more successful than blue-dye mapping or lymphoscintigraphy at identifying the sentinel node, although all three techniques were complementary. There was no instance of a sentinel node-negative patient developing regional lymphatic recurrence. In the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma study, there was no instance in which the sentinel node was negative and the remaining lymphadenectomy specimen was positive. CONCLUSION: In head and neck tumors that spread via the lymphatics, it appears that sentinel node radiolocalization biopsy can be performed with a high success rate. This technique has a low false-negative rate and can be performed through a small incision. In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the histological appearance of the sentinel node does appear to reflect the regional nodal status of the patient.
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8/21. Regression of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung by Chinese herbal medicine: a case with an 8-year follow-up.

    A 51-year-old woman diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung (T2N2M0) by cytological tests and a CT scan has survived for 8 years. During this period of time, she had been treated with Chinese herbal medicine alone for 4 years. The herbal prescription consisted of nine Chinese medicinal herbs. These herbs have been reported to possess anti-tumour and immune enhancing effects. Therefore, it is suggested that the herbal treatment for this patient might have contributed to the complete regression of her lung carcinoma. Further research on the actions of these herbs is warranted.
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9/21. Bone destruction resulting from rupture of a cholesteatoma sac: temporal bone pathology.

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the current study was to research the pathogenesis of bony destruction of cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a case report. SETTING: The study was performed at Fukushima Medical University. patients: The first case involved a 21 trisomy, whereas the second case was cancer of the hypopharynx. Both cases showed cholesteatoma. RESULTS: The following histopathologic findings in the temporal bones of cholesteatoma were obtained. Bony destruction in cholesteatoma was detected in the lesion of the rupture of the cholesteatoma sac. Epithelial debris of cholesteatoma was scattered throughout the rupture of the cholesteatoma sac. rupture of the matrix was the result of a small abscess. CONCLUSION: rupture of the cholesteatoma sac was believed to have been a pathway of either endogenous substances from the matrix and/or epithelial debris of cholesteatoma.
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10/21. Tumor markers and oncogene expression in thyroid cancer using biochemical and immunohistochemical studies.

    In 111 thyroid cancer patients consisting of 89 papillary carcinomas, 17 follicular carcinomas, 2 medullary carcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma and 2 malignant lymphomas, the levels of 12 tumor markers, including thyroglobulin (Tg), were measured in the serum by radioimmunoassay and radioimmunoassay related methods. serum levels of Tg were elevated in 58.6%, those of CA-M26 in 15.7%, CA 19-9 in 5.3%, CT in 3.6%, NSE in 3.6%, CA 15-3 in 2.6%, CA 125 in 2.6%, CEA in 0.9%, CA-M 29 in 0%, ferritin in 0%, SCC in 0% and AFP in 0% of cases. Among the patients, there was a case of thyroid carcinoma secreting thyroglobulin and CA 19-9, both of whose titer decreased after surgery. Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 57 of the above mentioned patients plus 6 anaplastic carcinomas, 15 adenomas, 5 adenomatous goiters, 6 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 15 Graves' disease and 15 normal subjects. CA 19-9 was positive in 58% of the papillary carcinomas, EGF in 73% of papillary carcinomas, 67% of anaplastic carcinomas, and 33% of follicular carcinomas, while EGF-R was found in 73% of the papillary carcinomas, and 33% of the follicular carcinomas. Enhanced expression of ras p 21 oncogene and (c-myc oncogene) was demonstrated in 100% (100%) of anaplastic carcinomas, in 100% (67%) of follicular carcinomas and in 63% (90%) of papillary carcinomas. Our results indicate that a better tumor marker is required and more extensive molecular oncology research should be pursued.
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