Cases reported "Carcinoma"

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1/186. Adrenal cancer with hypertension but low plasma renin and aldosterone.

    patients with malignant lesions of the adrenal gland may present with a syndrome of excess mineralocorticoids. Both primary hyperaldosteronism and excess mineralocorticoids other than aldosterone resulting from adrenal carcinoma have rarely been reported. In most patients with adrenal tumors secreting mineralocorticoids other than aldosterone, distant metastasis had already occurred at the time of diagnosis and the prognosis was poor. We present a rare case of adrenal cancer with hypertension in a patient with low plasma renin activity and a low plasma aldosterone concentration. The patient's blood pressure returned to normal after removal of the tumor. The patient is still alive and without recurrence 6 years after surgery. This case illustrates the value of thorough evaluation of hypertension and prompt surgical treatment for patients with adrenal cancer.
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ranking = 1
keywords = adrenal
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2/186. Phantom erection after amputation of penis. Case description and review of the relevant literature on phantoms.

    BACKGROUND: perception of a phantom limb is frequent after an amputation of an upper or lower extremity. Phantom penis is reported infrequently. METHOD: Case description and literature review. RESULT: The phenomenon of phantom penis followed total penectomy. Several aspects were unusual, particularly the existence with phantom only in the erect state, and associated recrudescence of a preoperative painful ulcer. General features of limb phantoms after amputation are reviewed including a resume of recent studies of cortical reorganization. The phantom process is analyzed looking for clues to the nature of the underlying neural organization. The puzzle of phantom pain is briefly touched on. CONCLUSION: The development of the phantom is attributed to activity in the deafferented parietal sensory cortex.
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ranking = 0.0010794655570599
keywords = cortex
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3/186. Progression of a Nelson's adenoma to pituitary carcinoma; a case report and review of the literature.

    A 25-year-old woman developed Nelson's syndrome, 3 years after successful bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease. Despite pituitary surgery and radiotherapy the tumour showed invasive growth, leading to visual disturbance, paresis of the oculomotor nerve and, 34 years after adrenalectomy, to death by widespread purulent leptomeningitis. autopsy revealed a large adenohypophyseal carcinoma with a metastasis attached to the dura, both tumours showing immunocytochemical staining for ACTH and TSH. We review the literature on metastatic adenohypophyseal carcinoma in Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome and discuss the role of proliferation markers as indicators of malignant progression.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = adrenal
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4/186. Esophageal undifferentiated carcinoma displaying marked chondroid differentiation at metastatic foci.

    A report of an unusual esophageal tumor in an 81-year-old man is presented. The primary tumor was diagnosed as undifferentiated carcinoma at biopsy and had disappeared after irradiation treatment. However, multiple metastases were noted in the brain, lungs, kidneys, adrenals and spleen at autopsy. Histologically, metastases showed marked cartilaginous metaplasia as demonstrated by light microscopy, histochemical and immunohistochemical studies, although the initial biopsy sample did not possess chondroid matrix. Furthermore, an apparent transition could be traced from carcinomatous to chondroid cells, suggesting that the chondroid cells were derived from carcinoma cells. The carcinomatous area partially showed both squamous and glandular differentiation, although they were poorly differentiated. A retrospective immunohistochemical study that used a panel of antibodies suggested a phenotypic relevance between primary and metastatic tumors.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = adrenal
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5/186. A patient with preclinical Cushing's syndrome and excessive DHEA-S secretion having unilateral adrenal carcinoma and contralateral adenoma.

    We report a case of preclinical Cushing's syndrome in a 54-year-old male associated with bilateral adrenocortical tumours. Physical findings and general laboratory data were unremarkable except for mild hypertension (158/90 mmHg) and impaired glucose tolerance. Endocrinological evaluation revealed the presence of autonomous cortisol secretion including unsuppressible serum cortisol by 8 mg dexamethasone test (11 microg/dl), high serum DHEA-S (3580 ng/ml, normal: 400-3500) and increased urinary 17-KS excretion (31.0-35.8 mg/day, normal: 5.8-21.3). CT scan demonstrated the presence of tumours in both adrenals and bilateral adrenalectomy was subsequently performed. Histological examination of the resected specimens revealed an adrenocortical carcinoma on the right side and an adenoma on the left side with noticeable cortical atrophy in non-neoplastic adrenals. Immunohistochemical study of steroidogenic enzymes demonstrated that all the steroidogenic enzymes involved in cortisol biosynthesis were expressed in both right and left adrenal tumours. Enzymatic activities of 21, 17alpha, 18, 11beta-hydroxylases were detected in both right and left adrenals except for the absence of 11beta-hydroxylase activity in the left adrenal adenoma. Results of in vitro tissue steroidogenesis examined in short-term tissue culture of the specimens revealed no significant differences between carcinoma and adenoma in cortisol production, but the production of adrenal androgens in carcinoma was significantly higher than that in adenoma, which may indicate the importance of evaluating adrenal androgen levels in patients with adrenocortical neoplasms.
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ranking = 2.4
keywords = adrenal
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6/186. Giant adrenal cortical carcinoma, clinically "nonfunctional": report of a case containing cytoplasmic hyaline globules of vimentin.

    Adrenal cortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare neoplasm that affects all age groups, with a bimodal peak of incidence, in young individuals in the first decade or two of life and in older subjects in the fifth to seventh decades. It may be clinically "functional" with Cushing's syndrome, virilization, or feminization, or it may be "nonfunctional." We report on the case of a 42-yr-old woman who complained of abdominal pain and a large adrenal tumor measuring 20 cm in size. No endocrine symptoms were observed. Laboratory tests showed increased levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), serum cortisol, and urinary free cortisol. Cytohistologic features were typical of ACC. A striking presence of hyaline cytoplasmatic globules was seen in cytologic smears and histologically, being immunoreactive for vimentin, consistent with an intracellular store of intermediate filaments. The tumor showed high proliferative activity (40%) with Ki-67 and negativity for p53, cerbB2, and bcl-2. Although hyaline globules are more frequent in pheochromocytomas and other neoplasms, they may also be present in ACC. These globules may be observed in cytologic smears. Also, the identification and immunohistochemical characterization of these hyaline globules in metastases may be useful in determining the origin of primary occult tumors. Diagn. Cytopathol. 1999;21:394-397.
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ranking = 1
keywords = adrenal
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7/186. pheochromocytoma associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma. A new type of composite pheochromocytoma.

    The coexistence of pheochromocytoma and other tumor types in a single adrenal gland has been rarely documented. This type of pheochromocytoma is designated "composite" or "mixed," depending on whether the pheochromocytoma and the nonpheochromocytoma components show the same embryologic origin. The nonpheochromocytoma components reported in the composite pheochromocytoma include ganglioneuroma, ganglioneuroblastoma, neuroblastoma, and malignant schwannoma. The components found in the mixed pheochromocytoma include adrenal cortical neoplasms and spindle cell sarcoma. We report a unique case of composite pheochromocytoma in which the nonpheochromocytoma element is a neuroendocrine carcinoma. The histologic and the immunohistochemical profiles of the 2 distinct components of this tumor were typical for those of pheochromocytoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma. This dual differentiation was also supported by ultrastructural findings. This case not only broadens the morphologic spectrum of composite pheochromocytoma but also provides some additional insight into the histogenesis of this rare but fascinating type of tumor.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = adrenal
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8/186. False positive metaiodobenzylguanidine scan in a patient with a huge adrenocortical carcinoma.

    We report a case of a 17-cm cortisol-secreting adrenocortical carcinoma in which [123I] metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan showed accumulation of the isotope in the area of the tumor. Catecholamine levels were normal, and no chromaffin cells were found in histological examination of the tumor. A literature review of previously described cases of false positive MIBG scans in the adrenal region is offered. We conclude that MIBG scans might not be as specific as previously thought in differentiating pheochromocytoma from adrenocortical carcinoma. They should be performed only when clinical suspicion and abnormalities in catecholamines advocate the need.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = adrenal
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9/186. Induction of cellular immunity in a parathyroid carcinoma treated with tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cells.

    BACKGROUND: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunity against major histocompatibility antigen class II-negative tumors requires help from CD4( ) T-cells. The major antigen presenting cells for CD4( ) cell activation are dendritic cells. Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated the potent capacity of these cells to induce specific antitumor immunity. OBJECTIVE: To control the growth of a metastasized parathyroid carcinoma, by immunizing a patient with tumor lysate and parathyroid hormone-pulsed dendritic cells. DESIGN AND methods: Mature dendritic cells were generated from peripheral blood monocytes in the presence of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-4 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Antigen-loaded dendritic cells were delivered by subcutaneous and intralymphatical injections. After five cycles, we added keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) as a CD4( ) helper antigen. RESULTS: After 10 vaccinations, a specific cellular immune response to tumor lysate was observed. in vitro T-cell proliferation assays revealed a dose-dependent stimulation index of 1.8-5.7 compared with 0.9-1.1 before vaccination. In vivo immune response was demonstrated by positive delayed-type hypersensitivity toward tumor lysate. Intradermal injection of tumor lysate resulted in an erythema and induration, suggesting the efficient generation of tumor lysate-specific memory T-cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that dendritic cell vaccination can induce in vitro and in vivo responses in a highly malignant endocrine carcinoma. Regardless of the clinical outcome of our patient, this approach might be generally applicable to other advanced, radio- and chemotherapy-resistant endocrine malignancies, such as adrenal carcinomas and metastasized medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = adrenal
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10/186. Multiple endocrine adenomatosis of mixed type.

    A case of multiple endocrine adenomatosis (MEA) of mixed type is presented. The syndrome, observed in a 65 year-old female, consisted of multiple neurofibroadenomatosis, medullary thyroid carcinoma, multiple adenomata of the parathyroids, adrenal cortical adenoma and small cell anaplastic bronchogenic carcinoma. Thus, it was composed of type 1 as well as of type 2 MEA. On the basis of another seven cases, collected from the literature, the MEA syndrome of mixed type is reviewed with special reference to the phylogenetic origin of the cells of the APUD system.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = adrenal
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