Cases reported "Carcinoma"

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1/21. Bilateral ureteric replacement with ileum.

    In connection with a report of a case, authors discuss in outline the possibilities of ureter replacement. If both the ureters are injured, they can be substituted with one single segment of the intestine, as it happened in their case. Authors raise the idea that a longer segment of the intestine used for substitution provides sufficient capacity and isoperistaltic function, and this may protect from the negative effects of possible vesicoileal reflux. In this case, the reflux does not spread to the kidneys even if the ureteroileal was not made with anti-reflux technique.
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2/21. Fine needle aspiration cytology of apocrine carcinoma of the breast. review of cases in a three-year period.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the fine needle aspiration cytology findings of apocrine carcinoma of breast and correlate them with the histologic appearance. STUDY DESIGN: The author reviewed the fine needle aspiration cytology findings of two cases of pure apocrine carcinoma of the breast in the files of Pamela Youde Nethersole Eastern Hospital during a three-year period, 1998-2000. RESULTS: The cytologic findings in both cases were similar. The smears were of moderate to high cellularity, consisting of predominantly dispersed or loosely cohesive tumor cells in a focally granular background. The carcinoma cells contained abundant, dense to granular cytoplasm; round or oval and sometimes eccentrically located nuclei; a smooth nuclear outline; evenly dispersed chromatin; and solitary macronucleoli. The cell borders were mostly discrete. In contrast to benign apocrine cells, the malignant cells showed nuclear overlapping, more frequent nuclear pleomorphism, increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratios and occasional mitotic figures. Histologic examination of the excised specimens showed extensive, solid apocrine carcinoma in situ with focal stromal invasion. CONCLUSION: Apocrine carcinoma, a subtype of breast carcinoma characterized mainly by its cytologic features, needs to be distinguished from benign apocrine lesions or other eosinophilic and granular cell tumors of the breast. Recognition of the subtle cytologic differences renders a definitive preoperative diagnosis possible.
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3/21. Complex adnexal tumor of the primary epithelial germ with distinct patterns of superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation, immature trichoepithelioma, and apocrine adenocarcinoma.

    A 60-year-old man came for treatment of a sharply outlined erythematous plaque on the gluteal area (45 x 20 mm) of 20 years' duration. Eccentrically located on the plaque was a nodule, 20 mm in diameter. Histological study of the plaque showed a superficial platelike tumor with basaloid bland cytology and sebaceous gland differentiation. Histologic study of the nodule found an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma whose ductlike glandular structures opened to the skin surface and infiltrated the whole depth of the dermis. Study of other areas of the lesion detected two more neoplasms. A nodule of squamous cell carcinoma was found within the superficial band of the benign sebaceous tumor. The fourth neoplastic pattern consisted of epithelial islands composed of basaloid cells within a fibroblastic stroma. There was prominent palisading of epithelial cell nuclei at the periphery of the islands, which usually were surrounded by a sheath of mesenchymal cells. In this complex adnexal tumor of the primary epithelial germ, sebaceous and follicular differentiation both simulate neoplastic patterns recently described as separate entities: superficial epithelioma with sebaceous differentiation and immature trichoepithelioma. The undifferentiated adenocarcinoma may represent differentiation toward the third component of the germ, that is, the apocrine gland.
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4/21. Histiocytoid change in breast carcinoma: a report of 3 cases with an unusual cytomorphologic pattern of apocrine change.

    BACKGROUND: breast carcinomas composed predominantly or exclusively of cells with foamy and/or granular cytoplasm have been termed histiocytoid breast carcinoma. CASES: Three cases of HBC had fine needle aspirates that were moderately cellular and composed of cells with abundant foamy and/or granular cytoplasm, arranged in loosely cohesive groups and dispersed singly. The cells showed subtle cytologic atypia, including nuclear hyperchromasia and slightly irregular nuclear outlines. Definitive cytologic diagnosis was not possible in the 3 cases, and they were reported as "suspicious for malignancy." Core biopsies of 2 cases showed a typical Indian file pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma, while the third case was composed of sheets of discohesive histiocytoid cells admixed with a prominent lymphoid infiltrate. All 3 cases were E-cadherin negative, confirming their lobular nature. CONCLUSION: HBC represents an unusual morphologic pattern of apocrine change that may be seen in lobular and ductal breast carcinomas. Recognition of these lesions is vital in that they may be mistaken for a variety of other entities composed of foamy/granular cells; some of those entities have vastly different implications for treatment and prognosis.
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5/21. Intracytoplasmic lumina in breast carcinoma: a helpful histopathologic feature.

    Eelectron microscopy has disclosed the presence of intracytoplasmic lumina within breast cancer cells. These structures can be recognized with the light microscope by their sharp, round outlines and thick walls. Their identification in large numbers may provide additional support for the breast origin of a metastatic tumor. Three illustrative cases in which demonstration of intracytoplasmic lumina was diagnostically helpful are presented.
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6/21. Otolaryngologic manifestations of child abuse.

    The number of reported cases of child abuse has increased dramatically over the past several years. Maltreatment of children can take several forms including neglect, sexual abuse, physical assault and psychological trauma. Five cases of child abuse presenting initially to the otolaryngology Service are outlined: bilateral auricular hematomas, recurrent tympanic membrane lacerations, a pharyngeal laceration with retropharyngeal abscess and medical neglect of a patient with a parotid malignancy and one with laryngeal papillomatosis. Characteristic presentations and risk factors in family background are discussed toward the goal of early recognition and appropriate intervention.
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7/21. Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland. Fine needle aspiration cytologic findings.

    A case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma of the salivary gland in a 78-year-old patient is presented. Fine needle aspiration cytologic smears showed a moderate number of tumor cells arranged in three-dimensional, well-outlined clusters reminiscent of the ball-like structures of adenoid cystic carcinoma. The nuclei were small and monotonous, with finely granular chromatin and small nucleoli. A large number of cells showed abundant clear cytoplasm; however, in some of the clusters the cytoplasms were very scant, again mimicking adenoid cystic carcinoma. Fragments of pale homogeneous acellular material, isolated or surrounding the cellular clusters, were another conspicuous finding.
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8/21. High-grade malignant mucoepidermoid tumour of tongue. A case report.

    Mucoepidermoid tumours of the minor salivary glands of the tongue are rarely encountered. A case of a high-grade malignant type is reported here. Merits of subdivision of the mucoepidermoid tumour on the basis of its malignant potential are outlined, and variations of histological presentation of the present tumour at its primary and nodal sites are discussed.
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9/21. Cerebellar metastasis from prostatic carcinoma simulating, on CT-scan, a cerebellopontine angle tumor. Case report.

    The authors report a rare case of cerebellar metastasis from prostatic carcinoma simulating on computerized tomography a cerebellopontine angle tumor. Solitary intracerebral metastases from prostatic cancer are infrequent, and their location in the posterior fossa with extension in the cerebellopontine angle is quite unusual. The differential CT findings from more common benign cerebellopontine angle tumors are briefly outlined.
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10/21. Ectopic production of human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report.

    The ectopic production of the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is described in a patient with an anaplastic carcinoma. After chemotherapy the marker decreased in a logarithmic fashion to undetectable levels but the neoplasm progressed and the patient died. The specificity of the beta-subunit of hCG is discussed. Discordance of the marker and clinical disease is pointed out, and several possible explanations are outlined. The lack of specificity of the beta-subunit of hCG and the discordance that it may exhibit means that its use in diagnosing and following disease progression may be limited.
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