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1/104. Intermittent sinus bigeminy as an expression of sinus parasystole: a case report.

    A case of sinus parasystole is reported. The diagnosis of sinus parasystole is relatively difficult because there is no difference between the basic sinus P wave and the parasystolic wave. Sinus parasystole is diagnosed according to the following electrocardiographic criteria: (1) premature P waves having contour identical to P waves of basic beats; (2) intervals between premature P waves mathematically related. In the case reported, the coupling intervals during long phases of intermittent sinus bigeminy were nearly fixed, because there was little variability in the returning cycles, making the diagnosis of sinus parasystole difficult.
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ranking = 1
keywords = beat
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2/104. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation initiated by pulmonary vein ectopic beats.

    Ectopic beats from the pulmonary veins (PVs) have been demonstrated to initiate atrial fibrillation (AF). This article describes the conceptual approach to mapping, interpretation of different electrograms, and ablation of AF initiated by PV ectopic beats.
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ranking = 24.545379316722
keywords = ectopic beat, beat
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3/104. octreotide improved ventricular arrhythmia in an acromegalic patient.

    We saw a remarkable effect of octreotide, the long-acting somatostatin analogue, in reducing the number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) in a 59-year-old woman with acromegaly. Her basal GH and IGF-1 levels were up to 22.9 ng/ml and 934.9 ng/ml respectively. MRI revealed a 14 x 12 x 10 mm mass lesion in the pituitary gland. She had hypertension and echocardiography showed an increase in left ventricular wall thickness. Electric cardiography showed the presence of frequent VPCs and 24-h Holter monitoring revealed 24,277 beats of multifocal VPCs/24 h. She was treated with 300 microg/day of octreotide for four weeks before transsphenoidal surgery. After octreotide treatment, GH and IGF-1 were suppressed to 1.8 ng/ml and 145.3 ng/ml respectively, and the tumor size was remarkably reduced. Furthermore, the number of VPCs was also dramatically reduced to 2062 VPCs/24-h (8.5% of pretreatment) with 24-h Holter monitoring. This case shows that VPCs of acromegalic patients can be controlled by suppressing GH and IGF-1 with octreotide, and this agent is useful for reducing both tumor size and frequency of VPCs prior to surgery.
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ranking = 1.0002227323934
keywords = beat, complex
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4/104. Fetal and neonatal arrhythmia in one of the twins--a case history.

    There are a lot of publications about fetal arrhythmia in singletons, but up to now there are no published data about fetal arrhythmia in multiple pregnancies. In the present study a case history of fetal and neonatal arrhythmia in one of twins from two mothers treated with betamimetic agents due to imminent preterm labor is reported and discussed. A first case with fetal bradycardia due to complete A-V block had congenital cordis abnormalities (VSD and PFO). The second case with prenatal detected extrasystoles had normal heart anatomy. digoxin was administered to the mother, in the aim to treat fetal arrhythmia without success, because the baby had postnatal bradycardia. After hospitalisation in cardiology Department the described cases were successfully treated. In both cases the second twins were without neonatal arrhythmia and with no structural heart abnormalities. We summarise that in situation of detection fetal arrhythmia the complexity of the problems experienced may warrant early referral to a tertiary centre where the overall management of the mother, fetus and neonate, may be undertaken.
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ranking = 0.00022273239344748
keywords = complex
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5/104. Clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous or inducible ventricular fibrillation without apparent heart disease presenting with J wave and ST segment elevation in inferior leads.

    INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of three patients with spontaneous or inducible ventricular fibrillation (VF) without apparent heart disease, who presented with J wave and ST segment elevation in inferior leads, are described. methods AND RESULTS: All patients were male and experienced syncope. Their symptoms occurred at night or early in the morning. Holter ECG revealed infrequent premature ventricular complexes. Injection with disopyramide 2 mg/kg augmented ST segment elevation. CONCLUSION: These characteristics were very similar to those of patients with brugada syndrome. These three patients with these specific features might have a variant of brugada syndrome.
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ranking = 0.00022273239344748
keywords = complex
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6/104. atrial flutter in the recipient atrium induced by premature beats arising from the donor atrium 10 years after orthotopic heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Several mechanisms for the genesis of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation have been reported. methods AND RESULTS: We describe a 58-year-old male patient in whom atrial flutter occurred 10 years after orthotopic heart transplantation. During an electrophysiological study, bidirectional conduction between the recipient and donor atria was found. atrial flutter in the recipient atrium was induced by programmed stimulation of the donor atrium using a single extrastimulus. The clinical symptoms were caused by atrial flutter arising from the recipient atrium with 1:1 to 3:1 conduction to the donor atrium. Mapping the anastomosis between the two atria indicated fragmented potentials at a discrete site of conduction. Delivery of radiofrequency energy at this site terminated conduction in both directions. Subsequent atrial pacing of the donor and recipient atria, respectively, demonstrated bidirectional conduction block. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic arrhythmias in patients after heart transplantation can indirectly originate from the donor atrium via bidirectional recipient-donor atrial conduction. This type of arrhythmia can be successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation.
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ranking = 4.046140734469
keywords = beat, supraventricular
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7/104. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography.

    OBJECTIVES: To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. methods: We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect discovered during prenatal evaluation by sonography. Four fetuses showed a complete atrioventricular block, two an atrial flutter, nine ventricular extrasystole, and one a complete irregular heart rate. Five fetuses were suspected to have a congenital heart defect. In all cases magnetocardiograms were recorded. RESULTS: Nine fetuses with extrasystole showed a range of premature atrial contractions, premature junctional beats or premature ventricular contractions. Two fetuses with atrial flutter showed typical flutter waves and four fetuses with complete atrioventricular block showed an uncoupling of P-wave and QRS complex. One fetus showed a pattern suggestive of a bundle branch block. In three of four fetuses with confirmed congenital heart defects the magnetocardiogram showed abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Fetal magnetocardiography allows an insight into the electrophysiological aspects of the fetal heart, is accurate in the classification of fetal arrhythmias, and shows potential as a tool in defining a population at risk for congenital heart defects.
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ranking = 1.0052187356331
keywords = beat, contraction, complex
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8/104. Initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating from the ostium of the inferior vena cava.

    Ectopic beats triggering atrial fibrillation may arise from atrial myocardial extensions in the pulmonary veins, superior vena cava, coronary sinus, and vein of Marshall. We report two patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation initiated by ectopic beats originating from the inferior vena cava. The foci responsible for the ectopic beats were located and ablated, resulting in elimination of atrial fibrillation. Ectopic beats originating from the os of the inferior vena cava can result in atrial fibrillation. This finding may explain the recurrence of atrial fibrillation in some patients after pulmonary vein isolation.
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ranking = 30.254455180066
keywords = ectopic beat, beat
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9/104. amiodarone treatment in pregnancy for dilatative cardiomyopathy with ventricular malignant extrasystole and normal maternal and neonatal outcome.

    amiodarone treatment in pregnancy might be difficult to handle because of the long half-life of the drug (14-28 days up to 2 months) and because it reduces maternal and neonatal thyroid activity. Although short-term use in pregnancy has been described in cases of fetal supraventricular tachycardia, there are few reports on the chronic use of the drug. In this paper we describe our experience with amiodarone treatment in two pregnant sisters with familial dilatative cardiomyopathy and ventricular malignant extrasystole. Prolonged administration of amiodarone (400-200 mg/die) since the beginning of pregnancy did not have any adverse effects; maternal and neonatal thyroid function was normal, as was the neurological and motor development of the neonates.
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ranking = 0.046140734469049
keywords = supraventricular
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10/104. Postpausal ventricular fibrillation analyzed by Holter-ECG: a case report.

    A 70-year-old male patient with a myocardial infarction, 3 months previously, happened to be wearing a Holter monitor at cardiac arrest during micturition. The patient had ventricular fibrillation (VF) and was successfully resuscitated by means of defibrillation. Analysis of the Holter tape revealed atrial fibrillation and secondary ventricular premature beats (VPB), i.e., VPBs dependent upon a relatively long interval between the two preceding heartbeats. The VF was preceded by an especially long R-R interval (1.45 sec) following a run of especially short R-R intervals implying the sharpest deceleration of the ventricular rate during 1 hour Holter recording preceding the cardiac arrest. A peculiar large alteration of the T wave configuration was also found to precede the VF.
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ranking = 2
keywords = beat
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