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1/49. Intermittent sinus bigeminy as an expression of sinus parasystole: a case report.

    A case of sinus parasystole is reported. The diagnosis of sinus parasystole is relatively difficult because there is no difference between the basic sinus P wave and the parasystolic wave. Sinus parasystole is diagnosed according to the following electrocardiographic criteria: (1) premature P waves having contour identical to P waves of basic beats; (2) intervals between premature P waves mathematically related. In the case reported, the coupling intervals during long phases of intermittent sinus bigeminy were nearly fixed, because there was little variability in the returning cycles, making the diagnosis of sinus parasystole difficult.
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2/49. Sinus escape-capture bigeminy and sinus extrasystolic bigeminy.

    Blocking conduction between the sinus node and the atria (SA block) can be responsible for symptomatic rhythm problems. However, in atrial escape-capture bigeminy with SA block, when atrial escape P waves originate in a site within or close to the sinus node, the diagnosis of SA block is not easy. Electrocardiograms were selected from 7 people with atrial bigeminy because (1) all atrial deflections (P waves) were almost the same in shape and in length of PR intervals, (2) comparatively long PP intervals alternated with comparatively short PP intervals, and (3) occasionally the atrial bigeminy changed to normal regular sinus rhythm in which 2 or more sinus P waves were found in succession. An attempt is made to clarify the mechanism for these cases. When regular sinus rhythm changed to bigeminal rhythm, the long PP interval introduced the bigeminy in 3 cases, indicating the presence of "sinus" escape-capture bigeminy; whereas the short PP interval introduced the bigeminy in the other 4 cases, indicating the presence of "sinus" extrasystolic bigeminy. In cases of sinus escape-capture bigeminy associated with SA block, the cases may occasionally be diagnosed wrongly as ordinary sinus arrhythmia not associated with SA block. Therefore, it seems that sinus escape-capture bigeminy is not so rare as is generally believed. patients with SA block often require implantation of the artificial pacemaker. Thus, the authors believe that differentiation of sinus escape-capture bigeminy from other forms of "sinus" bigeminy is clinically important.
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3/49. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation initiated by pulmonary vein ectopic beats.

    Ectopic beats from the pulmonary veins (PVs) have been demonstrated to initiate atrial fibrillation (AF). This article describes the conceptual approach to mapping, interpretation of different electrograms, and ablation of AF initiated by PV ectopic beats.
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4/49. octreotide improved ventricular arrhythmia in an acromegalic patient.

    We saw a remarkable effect of octreotide, the long-acting somatostatin analogue, in reducing the number of ventricular premature complexes (VPCs) in a 59-year-old woman with acromegaly. Her basal GH and IGF-1 levels were up to 22.9 ng/ml and 934.9 ng/ml respectively. MRI revealed a 14 x 12 x 10 mm mass lesion in the pituitary gland. She had hypertension and echocardiography showed an increase in left ventricular wall thickness. Electric cardiography showed the presence of frequent VPCs and 24-h Holter monitoring revealed 24,277 beats of multifocal VPCs/24 h. She was treated with 300 microg/day of octreotide for four weeks before transsphenoidal surgery. After octreotide treatment, GH and IGF-1 were suppressed to 1.8 ng/ml and 145.3 ng/ml respectively, and the tumor size was remarkably reduced. Furthermore, the number of VPCs was also dramatically reduced to 2062 VPCs/24-h (8.5% of pretreatment) with 24-h Holter monitoring. This case shows that VPCs of acromegalic patients can be controlled by suppressing GH and IGF-1 with octreotide, and this agent is useful for reducing both tumor size and frequency of VPCs prior to surgery.
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5/49. Clinical characteristics of patients with spontaneous or inducible ventricular fibrillation without apparent heart disease presenting with J wave and ST segment elevation in inferior leads.

    INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics of three patients with spontaneous or inducible ventricular fibrillation (VF) without apparent heart disease, who presented with J wave and ST segment elevation in inferior leads, are described. methods AND RESULTS: All patients were male and experienced syncope. Their symptoms occurred at night or early in the morning. Holter ECG revealed infrequent premature ventricular complexes. Injection with disopyramide 2 mg/kg augmented ST segment elevation. CONCLUSION: These characteristics were very similar to those of patients with brugada syndrome. These three patients with these specific features might have a variant of brugada syndrome.
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6/49. atrial flutter in the recipient atrium induced by premature beats arising from the donor atrium 10 years after orthotopic heart transplantation.

    BACKGROUND: Several mechanisms for the genesis of supraventricular arrhythmias in patients after orthotopic heart transplantation have been reported. methods AND RESULTS: We describe a 58-year-old male patient in whom atrial flutter occurred 10 years after orthotopic heart transplantation. During an electrophysiological study, bidirectional conduction between the recipient and donor atria was found. atrial flutter in the recipient atrium was induced by programmed stimulation of the donor atrium using a single extrastimulus. The clinical symptoms were caused by atrial flutter arising from the recipient atrium with 1:1 to 3:1 conduction to the donor atrium. Mapping the anastomosis between the two atria indicated fragmented potentials at a discrete site of conduction. Delivery of radiofrequency energy at this site terminated conduction in both directions. Subsequent atrial pacing of the donor and recipient atria, respectively, demonstrated bidirectional conduction block. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic arrhythmias in patients after heart transplantation can indirectly originate from the donor atrium via bidirectional recipient-donor atrial conduction. This type of arrhythmia can be successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation.
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7/49. Clinical implications of fetal magnetocardiography.

    OBJECTIVES: To test the usefulness and reliability of fetal magnetocardiography as a diagnostic or screening tool, both for fetuses with arrhythmias as well as for fetuses with a congenital heart defect. methods: We describe 21 women with either a fetal arrhythmia or a congenital heart defect discovered during prenatal evaluation by sonography. Four fetuses showed a complete atrioventricular block, two an atrial flutter, nine ventricular extrasystole, and one a complete irregular heart rate. Five fetuses were suspected to have a congenital heart defect. In all cases magnetocardiograms were recorded. RESULTS: Nine fetuses with extrasystole showed a range of premature atrial contractions, premature junctional beats or premature ventricular contractions. Two fetuses with atrial flutter showed typical flutter waves and four fetuses with complete atrioventricular block showed an uncoupling of P-wave and QRS complex. One fetus showed a pattern suggestive of a bundle branch block. In three of four fetuses with confirmed congenital heart defects the magnetocardiogram showed abnormalities. CONCLUSION: Fetal magnetocardiography allows an insight into the electrophysiological aspects of the fetal heart, is accurate in the classification of fetal arrhythmias, and shows potential as a tool in defining a population at risk for congenital heart defects.
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8/49. Post-extrasystolic potentiation recruits incremental contractile reserve of dyssynergic myocardium during dobutamine stress testing: evidence by pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging.

    dobutamine stress echocardiography is an established diagnostic method for the detection of myocardial viability in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction([1]). The presence of viable myocardium identifies patients who will benefit from coronary revascularization, by improving both functional capacity and long-term survival. Occasionally, dobutamine infusion has been combined with other stressors, such as post-extrasystolic potentiation, in order to improve accuracy. The contractile reserve after combined dobutamine infusion and post-extrasystolic potentiation can be quantified by pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging. We describe a patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction, in which pulsed wave tissue Doppler imaging allowed to demonstrate that post-extrasystolic potentiation superimposed on dobutamine infusion is able to further recruit contractile reserve, as compared to dobutamine infusion alone. A nuclear scan assessing glucose utilization was used as a reference.
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9/49. Postpausal ventricular fibrillation analyzed by Holter-ECG: a case report.

    A 70-year-old male patient with a myocardial infarction, 3 months previously, happened to be wearing a Holter monitor at cardiac arrest during micturition. The patient had ventricular fibrillation (VF) and was successfully resuscitated by means of defibrillation. Analysis of the Holter tape revealed atrial fibrillation and secondary ventricular premature beats (VPB), i.e., VPBs dependent upon a relatively long interval between the two preceding heartbeats. The VF was preceded by an especially long R-R interval (1.45 sec) following a run of especially short R-R intervals implying the sharpest deceleration of the ventricular rate during 1 hour Holter recording preceding the cardiac arrest. A peculiar large alteration of the T wave configuration was also found to precede the VF.
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10/49. Atrial parasystolic trigeminy with sinus node echoes during wandering sinus node pacemaker in a patient with malignant lymphoma and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    A case of atrial parasystolic trigeminy associated with shifting or wandering pacemaker in a patient with malignant lymphoma and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is presented, in which concomitant unsustained sinus node echoes during flattening of sinus P wave were observed. This is the first report to prove that wandering sinus pacemaker was one of the causes of sinus echoes.
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