Cases reported "Cardiac Output, Low"

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1/9. Temporary assist device for postcardiotomy cardiac failure.

    Postcardiotomy left ventricular failure (LVF) complicating a cardiac surgical procedure is usually managed with intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation. We report two cases of postcardiotomy LVF unresponsive to inotropic support and IABP counterpulsation that were managed successfully with the use of the TandemHeart percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) (CardiacAssist, Pittsburgh, PA). The TandemHeart pVAD appears to be safe and effective as a bridge to recovery in the treatment of postcardiotomy cardiac failure.
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2/9. Vascular complications of the intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation.

    From September 1994 to December 2002, 6,274 cardiosurgery operations were performed at the Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, czech republic. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) was applied in 192 cases (3.1%). From this group of 192 counterpulsated patients 103 were successfully treated (53.6%); 89 counterpulsated patients (46.4%) died from the surgical procedure (30-day mortality rate). In 5 cases (2.6%) from the group of 192, the IABP was introduced before the operation. Ischemic changes of the limb were observed in 11 cases (5.7%). Significant bleeding occurred at the site of puncture in 6 cases (3.1%). dissection of the femoral and iliac arteries was found in 2 patients (1.0%), perforation of the iliac artery in 1 case (0.5%). In 2 cases (1.0%) the balloon was led into the venous system. In case report No. 1 an introduction of the balloon under a sclerotic plaque of the descending aorta and iliac artery is described. In case report No. 2 a placement of the balloon in the venous bloodstream is reported.
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3/9. Right ventricular assist and prostacyclin infusion for allograft failure in the presence of high pulmonary vascular resistance.

    The presence of high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) greater than 4 wood units contributes to significant early posttransplant mortality, and remains a negative predictor of long-term survival. Current trends have been toward exclusion of the recipient with high PVR from the orthotopic procedure; elective heterotopic allograft placement is increasingly advocated. A patient with a PVR of 6 wood units underwent orthotopic transplantation; the cardiac allograft from a 12 kg heavier donor was implanted after an ischemic time of 115 minutes. Early graft failure at 4 hours and subsequent cardiac arrest were followed by reinstitution of cardiopulmonary bypass, during which time optimal pharmacologic manipulation of the pulmonary vasculature was undertaken, including the use of high-dose prostacyclin. Refractory right heart failure indicated the requirement for right ventricular assistance (RVA) for patient survival. RVA with a Bio-Medicus pump was instituted in association with high-dose prostacyclin; an intraaortic balloon pump was inserted 12 hours later. maintenance immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine and azathioprine alone. RVA was maintained for 3 days; during this time the patient was totally pump dependent. Over an 18-hour period the patient was weaned and successfully withdrawn from RVA. Intraaortic balloon pump counterpulsation and the prostacyclin infusion were continued for 6 and 10 days, respectively. The clinical implications of the various interventions that resulted in the patient's survival are discussed.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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4/9. Management of low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery using enoximone.

    This case report describes the use of enoximone, a potent phosphodiesterase F-IV inhibitor with inotropic and vasodilator actions, to treat low output syndrome after cardiac surgery. The reduced cardiac output was unresponsive to a combination of inotropic drugs and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation was contraindicated. cardiac output was increased dramatically by enoximone, but systemic vascular resistance and perfusion pressure remained low until the addition of metaraminol.
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5/9. Left ventricular assistance with the centrifugal pump: management of the patient with stunned myocardium.

    Prompt left ventricular assistance by the centrifugal pump enables the survival of many patients with postoperative low cardiac output who cannot be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass with the aid of balloon counterpulsation and inotropic agents. Successful weaning from the centrifugal pump, however, depends on the careful selection of appropriate candidates as well as the strict control of pump flow, oncotic pressure, coagulopathy, blood pressure, and systemic afterload. The installation of a hemoconcentration device into the pump line helps control hemodilution and maintain adequate oncotic pressure. The management of a patient who was totally dependent upon left ventricular assistance is described.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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6/9. counterpulsation and dobutamine. Their use in treatment of cardiogenic shock due to right ventricular infarct.

    A patient had right ventricular infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. Volume expansion along with high doses of dopamine hydrochloride successfully alleviated hypotension in this patient. However, he had persistent mental obtundation and low cardiac output, and adverse chronotropic responses to high doses of dopamine developed. counterpulsation effectively maintained an adequate arterial pressure and dopamine therapy was discontinued. counterpulsation, however, failed to augment cardiac output. Simultaneous use of dobutamine hydrochloride along with counterpulsation was associated with a noticeable increase in cardiac output. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of right ventricular infarct complicated by shock in which the simultaneous use of counterpulsation and dobutamine therapy resulted in a substantial increase in cardiac output.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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7/9. The use of intra-aortic balloon pump after surgical treatment of DeBakey type I dissecting aneurysm of the aorta.

    The case is reported of a sixty-four-year-old patient with DeBakey type I aortic dissection in whom postoperative extensive intra-aortic balloon pumping was applied. Surgical repair involved replacing the ascending aorta with a Medtronic Hall valved conduit. After surgery severe low-output syndrome occurred. Despite the use of high-dose inotropic drugs the patient could not be hemodynamically stabilized. An intra-aortic balloon pump was finally applied as a therapeutical last resort. Within three days, under counterpulsation, the patient reached a stable hemodynamic condition. After twenty-one days in the intensive care unit, he could be transferred to a normal ward. The patient was discharged on the fifty-fourth postoperative day. During counterpulsation there were no balloon- or catheter-induced complications. Follow-up at five months showed the patient in good general health: echocardiography did not identify any lesions of the thoracic aorta which could be linked to counter-pulsation. It is concluded that the postoperative use of intra-aortic balloon pump in the event of DeBakey type I dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, and adversely affected patient hemodynamics, is a justifiable therapeutical alternative.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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8/9. Biventricular assist device as a bridge to cardiac transplantation in the treatment of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is an unexpected complication of the puerperium with a high mortality rate. Appropriate therapy requires accurate identification of this disease, which is frequently difficult in a patient who has been previously healthy. Medical therapy using alteration of intravascular volume (to optimize ventricular preload), the addition of inotropic agents (to correct ventricular function), and intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (to improve afterload reduction) is the first line of therapy. Surgical therapy, involving cardiac transplantation, is the ultimate treatment. This therapeutic modality, however, is limited by a lack of available organs for transplant. The development of devices to be used as a "bridge" is gaining acceptance and use as a pretransplantation procedure. This use may be considered particularly fundamental in otherwise healthy young women with peripartum cardiomyopathy. These patients frequently can have almost complete recovery and rehabilitation. We report the case of a young woman with peripartum cardiomyopathy who had a favorable outcome. We performed medical and surgical therapy, insertion of a temporary "bridge" device, and ultimately cardiac transplantation.
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keywords = counterpulsation
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9/9. Reversible cardiac failure in an adolescent after prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide.

    We describe the case of an adolescent who developed a severe but fully reversible cardiac dysfunction with low blood levels of carboxy haemoglobin (COHb = 10%) after a prolonged exposure to carbon monoxide. A 15-year-old male was admitted with a glasgow coma scale of 8/15 with suspected postictal state and postanoxic encephalopathy. The cardiorespiratory failure which he developed soon after admission mandated mechanical ventilation, inotropic support and ultimately left ventricular support by intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. The cardiac dysfunction was documented by radionuclide imaging and echocardiography. The patient fully recovered without neurological deficit. A low blood COHb concentration is a poor safety indicator since high tissue levels of accumulated carbon monoxide can be associated with coma and fulminant cardiorespiratory failure requiring advanced life support facilities.
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