Cases reported "Cardiac Output, Low"

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1/57. Anaesthetic considerations in a patient with lepromatous leprosy.

    PURPOSE: To consider the anaesthetic problems in a patient with lepromatous leprosy undergoing general anaesthesia. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 52 yr old man with lepromatous leprosy for five years was booked for elective radical nephrectomy. He received 100 mg dapsone per day po. The patient was asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease but his electrocardiogram showed complete left bundle branch block, inferior wall ischaemia with echocardiogram findings of 58% ejection fraction and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction. Other preoperative investigations (haemogram, serum urea and creatinine, liver function tests and chest X-ray) were normal. After premedication with diazepam, meperidine and promethazine, the patient received glycopyrrolate and anaesthesia was induced with thiopentone. atracurium was given to facilitate tracheal intubation. Anaesthesia was maintained with intermittent positive pressure ventilation using N2O in oxygen with halothane. Anaesthesia and surgery were uneventful except that the patient had a fixed heart rate that remained unchanged in response to administration of anticholinergic, laryngoscopy, intubation and extubation. CONCLUSION: patients with lepromatous leprosy may have cardiovascular dysautonomia even when they are asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease.
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2/57. Profound hypoxemia during treatment of low cardiac output after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PURPOSE: To illustrate the multiple causes of hypoxemia to be considered following cardiopulmonary bypass and how therapy given to improve oxygen delivery may have contributed to a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation to life-threatening levels. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 61 yr old man with severe mitral regurgitation and chronic obstructive lung disease underwent surgery for mitral valve repair. A pulmonary artery catheter with the capacity to measure cardiac output and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) continuously was used. Two unsuccessful attempts were made to repair the valve which was finally replaced, requiring cardiopulmonary bypass of 317 min. dobutamine 5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 and sodium nitroprusside 1 microgram.kg-1.min-1 were used to increase cardiac output. Soon after, the SvO2 decreased progressively from 55 to 39%. The patient became cyanotic with a PaO2 of 39 mmHg. sodium nitroprusside was stopped and amrinone 100 mg bolus followed by 10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 was given in addition to adding PEEP to the ventilation. With these measures PaO2 could be maintained of safe levels but PEEP and high inspired oxygen concentrations were needed postoperatively until the trachea could be extubated on the third postoperative day. CONCLUSION: The profound hypoxemia in this case was likely due to a combination of intra- and extrapulmonary shunt, both augmented by sodium nitroprusside. The desaturation of mixed venous blood amplified the effect of these shunts in decreasing arterial oxygen saturation. The interaction of these factors are analyzed in this report.
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3/57. Transient left ventricular failure following bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension.

    BACKGROUND: Bilateral lung transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage pulmonary hypertension. Its early postoperative outcome may be biased by various complications resulting in unexpected deterioration of the patient in terms of hemodynamics and blood gases. methods: We have reviewed the early postoperative course of patients who underwent bilateral lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension at our institution and analyzed all available data, especially hemodynamic measurements, echocardiographic documentation and therapeutical strategies, in those cases where cardiac dysfunction was found to be responsible for clinical deterioration. RESULTS: Three out of 20 lung transplant recipients operated for pulmonary hypertension experienced severe respiratory insufficiency accompanied by hemodynamic decompensation during the first days after surgery. Clinical and laboratory findings together with results of echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheterism helped establish the diagnosis of left ventricular failure. This proved to be transitory, but the response to therapy (inotropic drugs, afterload reduction and eventually prostaglandins) was very variable. Adequately treated, this complication did not preclude the outcome of transplantation by itself. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular failure is a possible complication after lung transplantation for pulmonary hypertension. echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheterism may be useful adjuvant diagnostic tools, beside routine physical examination, chest X-ray, and laboratory analysis. Therapy of this complication must be adapted individually and may be complex.
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4/57. cesarean section in a mother with uncorrected congenital coronary to pulmonary artery fistula.

    PURPOSE: We report a case of a 33 yr old woman with pulmonary hypertension secondary to uncorrected right coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula who underwent two successful operative deliveries under general anesthesia. CLINICAL FEATURES: This woman underwent an emergency Caesarean section at 32 wk gestation because she presented in NYHA Class IV, heart failure and premature labour. She did not have antenatal follow-up. For her second pregnancy, she was managed from the first trimester of pregnancy by the cardiologist, obstetrician and anesthesiologist. She received oral furosemide and digoxin from eight weeks gestation. pregnancy was managed to term before she progressed to NYHA Class IV and cardiac failure at 37 wk gestation. She had a Caesarean section under general anesthesia. She received rapid sequence induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation with 0.1 mg x kg(-1) etomidate, 2 mg x kg(-1) succinylcholine and maintenance with nitrous oxide 50% in oxygen, isoflurane 1% and 0.1 mg x kg(-1) vecuronium. fentanyl, 2 microg x kg(-1) helped to obtund the hypertensive response to intubation. analgesia was provided with 1 mg x kg(-1) morphine. Glyceryl trinitrate infusion, 10-30 microg x min(-1) was used in addition to the anti-heart failure therapy. End-tidal capnography, electrocardiogram, pulse oximetry, continuous arterial blood pressure and pulmonary arterial catheter provided hemodynamic monitoring. The lungs were mechanically ventilated for 24 hr postoperatively. She received anti-heart failure therapy which she continued after discharge. She was NYHA class II upon discharge. She defaulted from further follow-up. CONCLUSION: Although the literature advocates, in this situation, controlled vaginal delivery utilising epidural analgesia, we describe the successful outcome for operative delivery under general anesthesia in a patient with secondary pulmonary hypertension and heart failure.
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5/57. Oral administration of the dopamine prodrug docarpamine shortens need for drip infusion of dopamine in patients with low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery.

    BACKGROUND: Docarpamine (DOC) is a dopamine prodrug which can be orally administered. It has been found that oral docarpamine transforms into dopamine in vivo, and increases cardiac output and renal blood flow as effectively as intravenous dopamine. methods: We reviewed the records of 26 patients who had developed low cardiac output syndrome (LOS) after cardiac surgery and received docarpamine during the early postoperative course. Five patients discontinued docarpamine within 2 days due to arrhythmia. There were 3 hospital deaths. The remaining 18 patients were divided into two groups according to the timing of docarpamine administration. In group A docarpamine was administered during and after weaning from intravenous catecholamines, in group B only on demand after weaning from intravenous catecholamines. RESULTS: There were 12 patients in group A and 6 in group B, and the severity of LOS was relatively milder in group B than in group A. Stable hemodynamics and sufficient daily urinary output were maintained by oral administration of DOC in both groups just as well as by drip infusion of catecholamines. CONCLUSION: Sinse continuous drip infusion of catecholamine commonly slows recovery in LOS patients, it is considered that switching from drip infusion of catecholamines to oral DOC administration is safe and useful for earlier recovery in LOS patients after cardiac surgery.
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6/57. Recurrent pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma presenting as a cardiac tumor.

    A 58-year-old patient is presented who had a pulmonary adenoid cystic carcinoma which recurred 10 years after sleeve left pneumonectomy. The patient developed acute heart failure because the lesion obstructed blood flow by compressing the left atrium. Transesophageal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a solid mass arising from the pericardium which displaced the posterior wall of the left atrium. The mass was resected. Postoperative radiation was not performed.
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7/57. Involvement of the right atrium by malignant lymphoma as a cause of right cardiac failure: report of a case.

    We describe herein a rare case of malignant lymphoma occupying almost the entire space of the right atrial cavity and causing low cardiac output syndrome. A life-saving emergency operation was carried out after the establishment of a temporary bypass between the axillary and femoral veins to prevent exacerbation of the patient's condition during the induction of anesthesia. cardiopulmonary bypass was commenced and the right atrium was opened. A large tumor in the right atrium could not be completely removed due to invasion of the atrial wall. A bypass from the left innominate vein to the pulmonary arterial trunk was constructed with a prosthetic graft to convert the blood flow directly from the systemic vein to the pulmonary artery. Postoperative radiation treatment was given, which resulted in reducing the size of the tumor considerably, and the patient is doing well 1 year after his operation.
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keywords = operative
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8/57. Tamponade after open-heart surgery with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.

    A 56-year-old man presented with late cardiac tamponade appearing on 9 postoperative day after weaning from percutaneous cardiopulmonary support. He had been referred to our hospital for congestive heart failure. He underwent aortic valve replacement and fell into postcardiotomy low output syndrome. He could not be weaned from extracorporeal circulation, and we had to use an intraaortic balloon pump and percutaneous cardiopulmonary support. On postoperative day 9, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was successfully withdrawn without problems, but he showed signs of superior vena cava syndrome after the cannulas were removed. An echocardiogram also showed cardiac tamponade. When the wound was reopened, a lot of old clots had compressed the right atrium and, after clot removal, the patient's hemodynamic state improved markedly. It is important to be aware that percutaneous cardiopulmonary support may conceal hemodynamic deterioration due to cardiac tamponade and to take care that a patient does not experience hemodynamic deterioration after percutaneous cardiopulmonary support withdrawal.
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ranking = 2
keywords = operative
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9/57. fluorine-18 FDG myocardial positron emission tomographic findings before and after pituitary adenoma resection in a patient with acromegalic cardiomyopathy.

    Because of persistently elevated growth hormone levels, acromegaly gives rise to various changes in organs mediated by insulin-like growth factor-I. In the heart, it causes myocardial hypertrophy, and, with time, heart failure. The authors performed pituitary adenomectomy in a patient with acromegalic cardiomyopathy who had heart failure; after operation, the blood growth hormone levels decreased to within the normal range and there was a marked improvement in left ventricular function by gated blood pool scintigraphy. Pre- and postoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) myocardial positron emission tomography showed increased accumulation of FDG in the myocardium before surgery, but accumulation within the normal range after operation. Myocardial glucose metabolism changed when the long-term effects of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-I were eliminated, and this appears to be accurately reflected by FDG positron emission tomography.
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10/57. Mediastinal mass obscured by a large pericardial effusion in a child: a potential cause of serious anaesthetic morbidity.

    Anaesthesia in the presence of a mediastinal mass is known to be hazardous. We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with a presumed postviral pericardial effusion presenting for pericardiocentesis under general anaesthesia. Cardiorespiratory collapse following induction of anaesthesia occurred due to an undiagnosed mediastinal tumour. The reasons for misdiagnosis, mechanisms for perioperative complications and optimal management are discussed. Mediastinal masses and underlying malignancy should always be considered in patients with large pericardial effusions.
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