Cases reported "Cardiomyopathies"

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1/123. Acute myopathy after status asthmaticus: steroids, myorelaxants or carbon dioxide?

    Acute myopathy complicating treatment of status asthmaticus has been increasingly recognized since its original description in 1977. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with severe asthma requiring mechanical ventilation. He was given high doses of parenteral steroids and neuromuscular blockade with non-depolarizing agents in order to achieve controlled hypoventilation with an ensuing hypercapnoea. He developed rhabdomyolysis with elevated creatinine kinase and renal impairment secondary to myoglobinuria. Electrophysiological studies revealed myopathic abnormalities. The aetiology for this myopathy appears to be related to therapy with parenteral steroids, muscle-relaxant agents and respiratory acidosis. patients treated with steroids and neuromuscular blocking agents should be regularly monitored for development of myopathy.
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ranking = 1
keywords = block
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2/123. Successfully treated complete atrioventricular block with corticosteroid in a patient with cardiac sarcoidosis: usefulness of gallium-67 and thallium-201 scintigraphy.

    A 71-year-old male with sarcoidosis was followed for 6 years without steroid therapy. He was admitted because of complete atrioventricular block. Chest X-ray showed hilar lymphadenopathy. Echocardiogram showed mild left ventricular hypertrophy without local wall thinning. Cardiac sarcoidosis was diagnosed by a defect of thallium-201 (Tl-201) imaging and abnormal uptake of gallium-67 (Ga-67). After the start of corticosteroid therapy, complete atrioventricular block was recovered. Abnormal uptake of Ga-67 was improved. Tl-201 and Ga-67 are useful to diagnose cardiac sarcoidosis, to evaluate the lesion of cardiac involvement and to estimate the efficacy of corticosteroid therapy.
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ranking = 3
keywords = block
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3/123. Cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by complete heart block.

    Hydatid cyst of the heart is an uncommon lesion. The infection is most common in sheep-raising areas of the world. We report a rare case of cardiac hydatid cyst revealed by complete heart block, which was removed with the patient under cardiopulmonary bypass. This case stresses the importance of echocardiography for the diagnosis of cardiac echinococcosis.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = block
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4/123. Metastatic calcification of the cardiac conduction system with heart block: an under-reported entity in chronic renal failure patients.

    Systemic metastatic calcification is a common complication of chronic renal failure. Cardiac involvement is particularly ominous, especially when the cardiac conduction system is affected. Conduction defects, arrhythmias, and sudden death have all been reported with conduction system calcification; however, these are relatively under-reported or unrecognized causes of cardiac morbidity and mortality. We describe a 40-year-old man with von hippel-lindau disease who had been maintained on hemodialysis for two years following bilateral nephrectomies for renal cell carcinoma. The patient presented with symptomatic complete heart block that had progressed from Mobitz type I atrioventricular block. Two months later, while being internally paced, the patient died unexpectedly after a complicated hospital admission. Postmortem revealed extensive vascular, myocardial, and conduction system calcification. Conduction system calcification may cause sudden death in chronic renal failure patients during hospital admission, or unexpectedly while the patient is in the community. knowledge of this condition is necessary to detect it, as the conduction system is not routinely examined. A routine abbreviated conduction system examination is warranted for patients with systemic metastatic calcification, especially if they have sudden death or a known history of heart block.
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ranking = 3.5
keywords = block
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5/123. Transvenous pacemaker insertion ipsilateral to chronic subclavian vein obstruction: an operative technique for children and adults.

    subclavian vein occlusion limits insertion of pacing electrodes in children and adults. The concern is greatest in children with a long-term need for pacing systems necessitating use of the contralateral vein and potential bilateral loss of access in the future. We describe an operative technique to provide ipsilateral access in chronic subclavian vein occlusion in five consecutive pediatric (n = 4, mean age 6.5 years) and adult (n = 1, age 70 with bilateral subclavian vein occlusion) patients in whom this condition was noted at the time of pacemaker or ICD implant. Occlusion was documented by venography. Pediatric cardiac diagnoses included complete heart block in all patients, tetralogy of fallot in three, and L-transposition of the great vessels in one. Percutaneous brachiocephalic (innominate) or deep subclavian venous access was achieved by a supraclavicular approach using an 18-gauge Deseret angiocath, a Terumo Glidewire, and dilation to permit one or two 9-11 Fr sheaths. Electrode(s) were positioned in the heart and tunneled (pre- or retroclavicularly) to a pre- or retropectoral pocket. Pacemaker and ICD implants were successful in all without any complication of pneumothorax, arterial or nerve injury, or need for transfusion. Inadvertent arterial access did not occur as compared with prior infraclavicular attempts. One preclavicularly tunneled electrode dislodged with extreme exertion and was revised. Ipsilateral transvenous access for pacemaker or ICD is possible via a deep supraclavicular percutaneous approach when the subclavian venous obstruction is discovered at the time of implant. In children, it avoids the use of the contralateral vein that may be needed for future pacing systems in adulthood. This venous approach provides access large enough to allow even dual chamber pacing in children and can be accomplished safely.
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ranking = 0.50089810404689
keywords = block, nerve
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6/123. Outpatient management of heart failure.

    The outpatient treatment of heart failure can be divided into 2 broad categories: older therapies, which improve hemodynamics, and newer therapies, which increase survival and improve function. Hemodynamic "triple" therapy includes digoxin to increase cardiac inotropy, antihypertensives to lower systolic pressure, and diuretics to remove fluid and decrease filling pressures. Disease-modifying therapy requires the use of specific agents to lower blood pressure (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin ii blockers, spironolactone, or hydralazine and nitrates) and beta-adrenergic blockade with carvedilol. The success of these newer therapies suggests that the standard triple therapy for heart failure should be expanded to "quadruple" therapy that includes carvedilol.
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ranking = 1
keywords = block
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7/123. Rytand-Lipsitch syndrome.

    An 84-year-old woman had Rytand-Lipsitch syndrome, ie, total atrioventricular block resulting from destruction of the central areas of the conducting system due to extension of calcification from the fibrous ring of the mitral valve. In a postmortem coronary arteriographic study of 500 hearts, degenerative calcification of the fibrous ring of the mitral valve was demonstrated in 4.4% (95% confidence limits--2.8% to 6.6%), rheumatic valvular changes not being included. There were significantly more women than men with calcification of the mitral valve apparatus (P less than .00005). Division of the material into two groups larger than or equal to 70 years and less than 70 years showed a statistically significant sex difference in the former group (P les than .005), whereas the sex difference was of borderline significance in the latter group (.1 greater than P greater than .05).
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = block
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8/123. Distinguishing cardiac features of a novel form of congenital muscular dystrophy (Salih cmd).

    The cardiac features of a novel form of congenital muscular dystrophy (Salih CMD) are described in two adolescent siblings. The patients presented with severe hypotonia at birth, associated with delayed development. They could walk independently and managed to maintain walking after 13 years of age. Their muscle immunohistochemistry differed from that seen in Duchenne and Becher muscular dystrophy (DMD and BMD), severe childhood autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy (SCARMD) due to sarcoglycan deficiency (sarcoglycanopathies), and lamininalpha2 (merosin)-deficient CMD. However, both patients had associated cardiomyopathy. electrocardiography (ECG) in Salih CMD was characterized by delayed atrioventricular (AV) conduction, left anterior fascicular block (left axis deviation), and left atrial enlargement without evidence of atrial dysarrhythmia. echocardiography showed features of severe left ventricular dysfunction with estimated left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) of 25% at 16 years-of-age in the older patient. A year later, multigated aquisition MUGA scan showed LVEF of 21% and dilatation of the right ventricle. echocardiography and MUGA scan were normal in the younger patient at 15 years-of-age. ECG, echocardiography, and MUGA scan are effective techniques for diagnosing and monitoring the cardiomyopathy in Salih CMD. They can also distinguish it from features seen in the other common forms of MD, including DMD, BMD, and sarcoglycanopathies.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = block
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9/123. Isolated noncompaction of ventricular myocardium.

    isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy resulting from an arrest in normal endomyocardial embryogenesis. The diagnosis can be made echocardiographically, and the entity may be associated with problems of cardiac rhythm. We describe two illustrative cases, with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome in one, and left bundle branch block in the other. We emphasize that children with problems of rhythm and findings suggestive for left ventricular cardiomyopathy, either hypertrophic or dilated; should be investigated to exclude isolated noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = block
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10/123. Detection of denervated but viable myocardium in cardiac sarcoidosis with I-123 MIBG and Tl-201 SPECT imaging.

    A 58-year-old man, who had biopsy-proven cardiac sarcoidosis, underwent TI-201 and I-123 MIBG cardiac scintigraphy. Although no perfusion defect was identified by Tl-201, mild heterogeneity of I-123 MIBG uptake was present in the myocardium. The denervated but viable myocardium was demonstrated in the heart with sarcoidosis. Cardiac sympathetic nerve function was impaired in cardiac sarcoidosis, slightly improved with steroid therapy. I-123 MIBG scintigraphy may be useful to assess extent of myocardial involvement and response to therapy.
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ranking = 0.00089810404688678
keywords = nerve
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