Cases reported "Cardiomyopathies"

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1/4. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty: impact of effective pacing.

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty, in which the transposed latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and then electrically stimulated to augment systolic dysfunction, is an alternative surgical treatment for severe cardiomyopathies. Critical to success of this operation is to provide the wrapped skeletal muscle with more fatigue-resistant structure through repetitive electrical stimulation. A cardiostimulating device is important in this regard to perform synchronised contraction contributing to symptomatic improvement. Here in, we present a case with dynamic cardiomyoplasty improving following renewal of impaired myostimulator device.
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2/4. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty in a patient with end-stage cardiomyopathy.

    Dynamic cardiomyoplasty is a relatively new surgical procedure by which a transformed fatigue-resistant skeletal muscle wrapped around the heart is stimulated to contract in synchrony with it, thereby augmenting the ventricular functions of a failing heart. We performed a cardiomyoplasty with latissimus dorsii (LD) in a patient who was refused the heart transplant programme because of pulmonary hypertension and psychosocial contraindications. The patient was 34 years old, functional class grade IV of the new york Heart association (NYHA), with a three-month history, due to ischemic cardiomyopathy with multiple vessels affected, 10% ejection fraction, arteriolar pulmonary resistance of 7.5 U wood. cardiomyoplasty was performed after training the LD muscle for four weeks. One week later the pacemaker was programmed in a DDD mode: amplitude 3.75 V, pulse duration 0.50 ms, AV delay 175 ms. The patient reached functional class grade I-II (NYHA). Inotrope support was discontinued and great clinical improvement was noted. The ejection fraction rose from 10% to 30%. Echocardiographic left ventricular outflow tract velocity increased from 0.33 m/s to 0.60 m/s. These values were compared with radionuclide angiocardiography and echocardiography evaluations. The great clinical improvement and positive changes in left ventricular parameters suggest that cardiomyoplasty is useful in the treatment of some cases of dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy as an alternative to heart transplantation. Long term follow-up is necessary to evaluate this procedure.
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keywords = cardiomyoplasty
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3/4. A new method to select stimulus strength after cardiomyoplasty.

    At present, there is no technique available for the determination of optimal stimulus strength in patients after cardiomyoplasty. To stimulate the latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle, we implanted Itrel stimulators in two goats and cardiomyostimulators in three goats following the routine cardiomyoplasty procedure. During the following 3 months, these LD muscles were conditioned at 2.5-4.0 volts (V). After conditioning, LD muscle shortening was measured on x-ray films using the distance between two stimulation electrodes as references. LD muscle shortening increased rapidly at higher stimulus strength and reached 13% /- 2% at 2.0 V. Shortening was calculated in one patient at 4, 6, and 9 weeks following surgery. The increase in the number of pulses per burst (2, 3, and 6, respectively) had a positive effect on muscle shortening between the two stimulation electrodes (10%, 14%, and 20%, respectively). Also, muscle shortening was measured between two clips attached to the distal part of the LD muscle. Muscle shortening in the area wrapped around the left ventricle was 15% after 9 weeks. In a second patient, shortening between the electrodes was 16% at 14 months after surgery, and distal muscle shortening was 11%. We concluded that optimal stimulation after cardiomyoplasty could be detected more accurately by measurement of LD muscle shortening using the stimulation electrodes or surgical clips as markers.
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keywords = cardiomyoplasty
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4/4. cardiomyoplasty after implantation of a pacemaker and cardioverter/defibrillator.

    Presently, a combination of two surgical methods improves the survival of patients with advanced ventricular dysfunction: implantable cardioverter/defibrillator implantation (which prevents sudden cardiac death) and cardiomyoplasty (which prevents further dilatation of the heart and provides additional cardiac assistance). We report the clinical course of a patient who had cardiomyoplasty after cardioverter/defibrillator implantation and pacemaker insertion. It is a rare case in which three different devices cardioverter/defibrillator, pacemaker, and cardiomyostimulator) are functioning together without crosstalk.
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keywords = cardiomyoplasty
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