Cases reported "Cardiomyopathies"

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1/162. Hereditary dysrhythmic congestive cardiomyopathy.

    A patient with hereditary congestive cardiomyopathy, who presented with recurrent episodes of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias most often precipitated by exercise, is described. The condition is marked by either a progressive course, in which case congestive cardiac failure may set in towards the end, or by unexpected sudden death. The family tree could be traced for 10 generations. The information about the tenth generation firmly established that 4 members, 2 of whom had died, were affected. Other evidence suggests that the condition was the cause of death in 3 members of the eighth generation.
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2/162. Sudden death in right ventricular dysplasia with minimal gross abnormalities.

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is emerging as a relatively common cause of exercise-induced sudden death in the young. The diagnostic criteria at autopsy are, however, not fully established, leading to both over- and underdiagnosis. We report a young man and a young woman dying suddenly of right ventricular dysplasia during exercise, in whom the gross autopsy findings in the right ventricle were minimal or even absent. However, the histologic features in both right and left ventricles were typical of the disease, and consisted of fibrofatty infiltrates with typical myocyte degeneration of the right ventricle and subepicardial regions of the left ventricle. These cases illustrate that microscopic findings are diagnostic and may be present in the absence of gross findings. Marked fat replacement is not essential for the diagnosis of right ventricular dysplasia, and the right ventricle should be extensively sampled histologically in all cases of sudden unexpected death, especially those that are exercise related.
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3/162. Myocardial sarcoidosis in forensic medicine.

    Sudden death is the most common manifestation of myocardial sarcoidosis, which is often clinically silent. The disease is rarely encountered in forensic medicine, but the diagnosis is important because it may change the interpretation of the manner of death and thus have insurance implications. Six cases of myocardial sarcoidosis diagnosed at autopsy are reported, and the significance of the findings is discussed.
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4/162. Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy: three new cases and a review of the literature.

    Histiocytoid cardiomyopathy (HC), a rare arrhythmogenic disorder, presents as difficult-to-control arrhythmias or sudden death in infants and children, particularly girls. Three cases are described with autopsy findings. In two cases, yellow-tan nodules were grossly visible in the myocardium; in the third case, no gross lesions were identified. Microscopic examination in all three cases revealed multiple, scattered clusters of histiocytoid myocytes which on ultrastructural examination were filled with abnormal mitochondria, scattered lipid droplets, and scanty myofibrils. These pathologic findings are similar to those previously described. The pathogenesis of this entity remains controversial. It was recently proposed that this disorder is X-linked dominant with the associated gene located in the region of Xp22.
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5/162. Right ventricular cardiomyopathy. A rare and underdiagnosed cause of sudden death in young adults.

    We present an example of right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a very uncommon condition which caused sudden death in an adolescent boy. This case report is used to highlight the pathological features of this rare and poorly understood condition, which is often undiagnosed.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = death
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6/162. Mobile intracardiac calcinosis: a new risk of thromboembolism in patients with haemodialysed end stage renal disease.

    Cardiac calcinosis is a common complication of end stage renal disease. A newly observed risk of thromboembolism is reported in four patients with mobile cardiac calcinosis, treated with long term dialysis. Rapidly growing mobile calcification was confirmed by echocardiography. Each patient had an imbalance in serum calcium x inorganic phosphate (Ca x P product >/= 50); this imbalance could not be treated due to the sudden death of the patient or the need for surgical resection to prevent recurrent cerebral thromboembolism. Histological examination revealed intracardiac calcinosis in three cases, and each case showed haemodialysis hypoparathyroidism (intact PTH < 160 pg/ml). thromboembolism in such cases is rare, however it indicates a need for cautious echocardiographic monitoring in end stage renal disease in patients with an uncontrolled Ca x P product.
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7/162. Reversible left ventricular dysfunction associated with raised troponin i after subarachnoid haemorrhage does not preclude successful heart transplantation.

    Transient abnormalities in ECGs, echocardiograms, and cardiac enzymes have been described in the acute setting of subarachnoid haemorrhage. In addition, left ventricular dysfunction has been reported at the time of brain death. A patient with an acute subarachnoid haemorrhage who presented with raised troponin i (TnI) concentrations and diffuse left ventricular dysfunction is described. After declaration of brain death 32 hours later, the heart was felt initially not suitable for transplantation. A normal cardiac catheterisation, however, lead to successful transplantation of the donor heart. Raised catecholamine concentrations and metabolic perturbations have been proposed as the mechanisms leading to the cardiac dysfunction seen with brain death. This may be a biphasic process, allowing time for myocardial recovery and reversal of the left ventricular dysfunction. awareness of this phenomenon in the acutely ill neurologic population needs to be raised in order to prevent the unnecessary rejection of donor hearts.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = death
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8/162. Primary cardiomyopathy in identical twins.

    Seventeen year old identical twin brothers with no family history of cardiopathy began experiencing palpitations almost simultaneously. In both, examination revealed marked cardiomegaly and hypokinesia of the ventricular walls, and clinical and radiologic signs of progressive cardiac failure developed a few days later. Both boys died suddenly, 49 days and 5 months, respectively, after the initial examination. Electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic studies revealed a severe intraventricular conduction disturbance that coincided with histologic changes in the myocardial tissue, including profuse interstitial fibrosis, hypertrophy and degeneration of the myocardial fibers, aberrant arrangement of the muscular fibers and considerable alteration of the structure of cardiac tissue. In the absence of hereditary and chromosomal factors, and excluding possible viral intervention during fetal life, it is believed that a teratogenic factor can produce the structural alterations of the tissue and derangement of the fibers observed in these hearts. The irregular contractions of the heart at the level of the net-like meshwork, disarrangement of myocardial fibers, and adaptative mechanisms of the heart inherent in the destruction of the contractile tissue contributed to the functional cardiac disorders that resulted in congestive heart failure and sudden death in these twins.
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9/162. Metastatic calcification of the cardiac conduction system with heart block: an under-reported entity in chronic renal failure patients.

    Systemic metastatic calcification is a common complication of chronic renal failure. Cardiac involvement is particularly ominous, especially when the cardiac conduction system is affected. Conduction defects, arrhythmias, and sudden death have all been reported with conduction system calcification; however, these are relatively under-reported or unrecognized causes of cardiac morbidity and mortality. We describe a 40-year-old man with von hippel-lindau disease who had been maintained on hemodialysis for two years following bilateral nephrectomies for renal cell carcinoma. The patient presented with symptomatic complete heart block that had progressed from Mobitz type I atrioventricular block. Two months later, while being internally paced, the patient died unexpectedly after a complicated hospital admission. Postmortem revealed extensive vascular, myocardial, and conduction system calcification. Conduction system calcification may cause sudden death in chronic renal failure patients during hospital admission, or unexpectedly while the patient is in the community. knowledge of this condition is necessary to detect it, as the conduction system is not routinely examined. A routine abbreviated conduction system examination is warranted for patients with systemic metastatic calcification, especially if they have sudden death or a known history of heart block.
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10/162. Sudden death caused by myocardial tuberculosis: case report and review of the literature.

    A 25-year-old fit man died suddenly while playing social soccer. autopsy revealed an infiltrative lesion involving the left ventricle with overlying pericarditis. No other significant pathologic changes were observed. Histologic examination showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. No acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the pericardial fluid or on histologic examination. The presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis dna complex was confirmed by use of the ligase chain reaction technique. The differential diagnosis of myocardial tuberculosis includes sarcoidosis, rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, giant-cell-containing tumors, idiopathic (giant-cell) myocarditis, and bacterial infections such as tularemia and brucellosis. This case illustrates the protean manifestations of tuberculosis and highlights the use of molecular biologic techniques in arriving at a definitive diagnosis in cases of suspected tuberculosis.
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