Cases reported "Cardiomyopathy, Dilated"

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1/854. Cardiac manifestations of congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy.

    Cardiac involvement has not been a reported feature of congenital fiber-type disproportion myopathy. We describe two children, aged 13 years and 1 year, respectively, who presented with serious cardiac symptomatology in conjunction with congenital fiber-type disproportion. One child developed dilated cardiomyopathy and medically intractable congestive heart failure necessitating cardiac transplantation at the age of 13 years. The second (unrelated) child developed atrial fibrillation with rapid atrioventricular conduction requiring treatment with digoxin. Skeletal muscle biopsy findings in both children showed congenital fiber-type disproportion with no evidence of a structural, dystrophic, or metabolic myopathy. adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) reacted sections showed type I hypotrophy with a predominance of type I fibers, confirmed by histogram analysis. Examination of the heart from patient 1 at the time of transplantation confirmed dilated cardiomyopathy with hypertrophic myocardiocytes. Although cardiomyopathy is commonly associated with other childhood myopathies, to our knowledge it has not been a feature in reported cases of congenital fiber-type disproportion. We recommend close cardiac assessment, with annual electrocardiograms, of children with congenital fiber-type disproportion. ( info)

2/854. Reduced left ventricular dimension and normalized atrial natriuretic hormone level after repair of aortic coarctation in an adult.

    Although unusual in the older patient, coarctation of the aorta can be an occult cause of cardiomyopathy. This report describes a 53-year-old man with new-onset heart failure symptoms, global left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, and underlying aortic coarctation. Surgical correction resulted in reduced LV size, resolution of symptoms, and normalization of atrial natriuretic hormone levels. ( info)

3/854. Rapid progression of cardiomyopathy in mitochondrial diabetes.

    Cardiac involvement and its clinical course in a diabetic patient with a mitochondrial tRNA(Leu)(UUR) mutation at position 3243 is reported in a 54-year-old man with no history of hypertension. At age 46, an electrocardiogram showed just T wave abnormalities. At age 49, it fulfilled SV1 RV5 or 6>35 mm with strain pattern. At age 52, echocardiography revealed definite left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and abnormally increased mitochondria were shown in biopsied endomyocardial specimens. He was diagnosed as having developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with the mutation. However, at age 54, SV1 and RV5,6 voltages were decreased, and echocardiography showed diffuse decreased LV wall motion and LV dilatation. Because he had mitochondrial diabetes, the patient's heart rapidly developed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and then it seemed to be changing to a dilated LV with systolic dysfunction. Rapid progression of cardiomyopathy can occur in mitochondrial diabetes. ( info)

4/854. A patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy accompanied by right ventricular dilation of unknown cause.

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease characterized by an unknown cause of hypertrophy in the left or right ventricle. The dilated phase of HCM shows disease conditions resembling dilated cardiomyopathy, such as ventricular dilation, thin ventricular wall, and reduction of the ejection fraction. A patient presented with left ventricular concentric hypertrophy accompanied by right ventricular dilatation of unknown cause. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy specimens showed characteristic myocardial disarray. Therefore, there is the possibility that the patient had right and left ventricular HCM in the process toward the dilated phase, in which dilatation first occurred in the right ventricle. ( info)

5/854. Extracorporeal right to left atrial bypass to treat right ventricular failure.

    Graft right ventricular failure after heart transplantation, secondary to preoperative functional pulmonary hypertension, was successfully managed in a 49-year-old patient using an extracorporeal right to left atrial bypass. We comment on the case and discuss the type of mechanical assistance used. ( info)

6/854. Torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia during low dose intermittent dobutamine treatment in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure.

    The authors describe the case of a 56-year-old woman with chronic, severe heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and absence of significant ventricular arrhythmias who developed QT prolongation and torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia during one cycle of intermittent low dose (2.5 mcg/kg per min) dobutamine. This report of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia during intermittent dobutamine supports the hypothesis that unpredictable fatal arrhythmias may occur even with low doses and in patients with no history of significant rhythm disturbances. The mechanisms of proarrhythmic effects of Dubutamine are discussed. ( info)

7/854. Cardiac transplantation in a Duchenne muscular dystrophy carrier.

    We report here for the first time the case of a symptomatic DMD carrier, who had a heart transplant for a severe dilated cardiomyopathy. dystrophin immunohistochemistry, western blot and analysis of X-chromosome inactivation on leucocytes, and skeletal and cardiac muscle biopsies on the explanted heart were performed. The patient was a heterozygote for exons 50-52 deletion in the dystrophin gene. The number of dystrophin-deficient fibres in the heart was much higher than in skeletal muscle. On the other hand, the explanted heart showed a non-skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation, as in leukocytes and skeletal muscle. The adverse cardiac course may be explained by the absence of regeneration among cardiomyocytes. ( info)

8/854. The role of echocardiography in assessing the morphological response of left ventricular thrombus to anticoagulation.

    We present a patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and a large left ventricular apical thrombus in which serial echocardiography over a 1-month period documented progressive enlargement of this mural thrombus. This case illustrates the dramatic progression of left ventricular thrombus size despite aggressive anticoagulation. In addition, the critical role of echocardiography in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with left ventricular thrombus is emphasized. ( info)

9/854. Solitary renal myofibromatosis: an unusual cause of infantile hypertension.

    INTRODUCTION: Renovascular disease accounts for the vast majority of cases of infantile hypertension with complications resulting from umbilical arterial catheterization predominating in the neonatal period and fibrodysplastic lesions of the renal artery predominating outside the neonatal period. We report a previously undescribed cause of renovascular hypertension: solitary renal myofibromatosis. CASE REPORT: A 9-month-old male infant was transported to the intensive care unit at Children's Hospital in Denver, colorado, for evaluation and treatment of a dilated cardiomyopathy and severe systemic hypertension. The child was full-term with no perinatal problems. Specifically, the child never required umbilical arterial catheterization. He was well until 6 months of age when his parents noted poor weight gain. At 9 months of age, he was evaluated at the referral hospital for failure to thrive. On examination he was noted to have a blood pressure of 170/110 mm Hg, but no other abnormalities. A chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly. Laboratory studies demonstrated normal electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine. However, urinalysis demonstrated 4 protein without red blood cells. An echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular dilatation with an ejection fraction of 16%. On admission the child was noted to be cachectic. His vital signs, including blood pressure, were normal for age. The physical examination was unremarkable. serum electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were normal. Echocardiographic studies suggested a dilated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He was started on digoxin and captopril. Subsequently, he demonstrated episodic hypertension ranging from 170/90 to 220/130 mm Hg. A repeat echocardiogram 24 hours after admission demonstrated a purely hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. verapamil and nifedipine were added to the treatment regimen in an effort to better control the blood pressure without success. urine and blood for catecholamines and plasma renin activity, respectively, were sent and treatment with phentolamine instituted because of a possible pheochromocytoma. A spiral abdominal computerized tomographic scan revealed a markedly abnormal right kidney with linear streaky areas of calcification around the hilum and also an area of nonenhancement in the posterior upper pole. The adrenals and the left kidney were normal. Doppler ultrasound revealed a decrease in right renal arterial flow. The urinary catecholamines were normal and surgery was scheduled after the blood pressure was brought under control by medical treatment. At surgery, tumorous tissue and thrombosis of the renal artery were found in the right upper pole. A right nephrectomy was performed. Pathologic examination of the kidney showed the presence of a diffuse spindle cell proliferation in the interstitium of the kidney. The angiogenic/angiocentric character of the proliferation was demonstrated in several large renal vessels. The lumen of most vessels was narrowed and some vessels were totally occluded with recanalization and dystrophic calcifications observed. Immunostaining of the tumor demonstrated strong desmin and vimentin positivity and minimal actin positivity in the spindle cells. Mitotic activity was not noted in the spindle cell process. These pathologic changes were consistent with a diagnosis of infantile myofibromatosis (IM). The child's preoperative plasma renin activity was 50 712 ng/dL/h (reference range, 235-3700 ng/dL/h). DISCUSSION: The causes of systemic hypertension in infancy are many although renal causes are by far the most common. Renal arterial stenosis or thrombosis accounts for 10% to 24% of cases of infantile hypertension. renal artery thrombosis is usually a consequence of umbilical arterial catheterization, which can also lead to embolization of the renal artery. renal artery stenosis may result from fibrodysplastic lesions (74%), abdominal aortitis (9%), a complication of renal transplantation (5%), and ren ( info)

10/854. Reversible catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy in a heart transplant candidate without persistent or paroxysmal hypertension.

    BACKGROUND: Both dilated and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have been reported in patients with pheochromocytoma, who were almost always hypertensive. The outcome frequently has been fatal, yet cardiac dysfunction can be reversible after medical or surgical therapy for the pheochromocytoma. methods: We report the case of a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy without persistent or paroxysmal hypertension, who was found to have a pheochromocytoma during initial medical evaluation. RESULTS: The identification and treatment of the pheochromocytoma led to significant improvement in cardiac function and cardiac transplantation was avoided. CONCLUSIONS: This case illustrates some unusual features in pheochromocytoma-induced cardiomyopathy: (1) absence of persistent or paroxysmal hypertension, (2) initial presentation with acute myocardial infarction and normal coronary arteries, and (3) recurrent episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. ( info)
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