Cases reported "Cardiovascular Diseases"

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1/79. Cardiovascular consequences of renal anaemia and erythropoietin therapy.

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of increased mortality in patients with renal failure and vigorous attention to cardiovascular risk factors is therefore required to improve patient outcome. The availability of recombinant human Epo has focused the interest on the role of chronic anaemia in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Severalfold evidence indicates that anaemia can contribute to cardiac volume overload and together with overhydration, fistula flow and the pressure overload secondary to arterial hypertension, it may play a significant role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. As in the general population left ventricular hypertrophy is a severe adverse risk factor in renal patients. In addition, in the presence of ischaemic heart disease anaemia may further worsen cardiac oxygen supply. This dual effect of anaemia probably explains why epidemiological studies have shown that a 1 g/dl decrease in haemoglobin levels is an independent, statistically significant risk factor for the development of cardiac morbidity and mortality. Follow-up examinations have demonstrated that partial correction of anaemia with recombinant Epo can improve cardiac oxygen supply and partially reverse pathological changes in left ventricular geometry. However, although partial anaemia correction regularly reduces left ventricular volume, the effects on wall thickness are far less significant. Moreover, in patients with advanced cardiac disease it has recently not been possible to demonstrate that a normalization of haemoglobin levels provides further benefit. It is not unlikely therefore that the development of severe anaemia has to be prevented by early implementation of Epo therapy in order to achieve the maximum benefit with respect to the cardiovascular system.
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keywords = vascular disease
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2/79. Cardiovascular involvement in a boy with Sweet's syndrome.

    Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome) is a rare disease in infancy. It may present in an isolated manner or be associated with diverse conditions. Only two children with postinflammatory slack skin who developed cardiovascular disease have been described to date, both of whom died from coronary artery occlusion. We report a boy with Sweet's syndrome and diffuse vascular disease involving the aorta and the supraaortic vessels, the pulmonary trunk, and the right coronary artery but without signs of coronary obstruction.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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3/79. Preoperative evaluation of a patient for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Coexistent cardiovascular disease is common in patients presenting for repair of aortic aneurysms. However, preoperative cardiac evaluation prior to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery remains contentious with significant variations in practice between countries, institutions and individual anesthetists. The following case report raises some everyday issues confronting clinical anesthetists.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular disease
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4/79. The many faces of Kawasaki syndrome.

    The clinical challenge lies in recognizing cases not fully meeting the syndrome's diagnostic criteria and those that strongly resemble a variety of infectious and reactive disorders. Prompt treatment with high-dose intravenous immune globulin in combination with aspirin can significantly reduce the frequency and severity of cardiovascular complications.
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ranking = 1.3597846030232
keywords = vascular complication
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5/79. Familial thrombophilia associated with homozygosity for the cystathionine beta-synthase 833T-->C mutation.

    Severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is a strong risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Among untreated patients, approximately 50% have suffered a thromboembolic event by 30 years of age. We report on 3 sisters with severe hyperhomocysteinemia due to homozygosity for the CBS 833T-->C mutation. These patients, who displayed no other known thrombophilic predisposition, had suffered single or multiple venous thrombosis before CBS deficiency was diagnosed relatively late in life. In this family, homozygosity for the 833T-->C mutation was associated with a mild phenotype with respect to other sequelae of CBS deficiency. Consequently, our results indicate that most cases with this genotype may remain undiagnosed. Investigated family members heterozygous for the 833T-->C mutation displayed normal total homocysteine in plasma (tHcy) levels, even when they were homozygous for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C-->T polymorphism. The prevalence of homozygosity for the 833T-->C mutation has previously been estimated at no less than 1:20 500 in our population. Because a reduction of the severely elevated levels of tHcy in CBS deficiency reduces cardiovascular risk and because homozygosity for the 833T-->C mutation is more prevalent than previously thought, our results emphasize the importance of measuring tHcy routinely in thrombophilia screening.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular disease
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6/79. Hemangiomas of the cecum. Colonoscopic diagnosis and therapy.

    Five cases of hemangiomas of the cecum and gastrointestinal bleeding are presented. All were demonstrated by colonscopy after more conventional diagnostic methods failed. The hemangiomas were bright red, flat lesions clearly seen through the colonscope. They were successfully treated by electrocoagulation. All patients in this series had some type of associated cardiac or vascular disease. These patients may represent a syndrome of gastrointestinal blood loss of obscure cause, hemangiomas of the cecum, and cardiovascular disease.
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keywords = vascular disease
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7/79. Applying evidence-based medicine to current practice: a round table panel discussion.

    Over the past decade, an expanding body of epidemiological and clinical trial data has been collated, culminating in the development of guidelines designed to help physicians make decisions about intervention and the intensity of treatment, based on objective assessments of the overall level of risk for cardiovascular disease. However, guidelines are not prescriptive and allow physicians leeway in interpretation. Thus, it is of clinical interest to explore some of the issues that may influence the use of these guidelines in clinical practice. This paper summarises a round table panel discussion that highlighted the usefulness of current guidelines, but also demonstrated that these guidelines, and the evaluation of cardiovascular risk, need to be used with care and always interpreted in the light of sound clinical judgement.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular disease
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8/79. skin tags and the atherogenic lipid profile.

    This report details four patients who had skin tags, mainly on their torso, neck, and axillae, and who also displayed an abnormal lipid profile. All showed an increased serum triglyceride (fasting > 1.70 mmol/litre) and a decreased high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (< 1.1 mmol/litre in women and 1.0 mmol/litre for men) concentration. The displayed lipid profile is also known as the atherogenic profile and is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Two of the patients had impaired glucose tolerance and one had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Three of the individuals had coronary artery disease. skin tags might be a useful clinical sign that could alert clinicians to screen such individuals for abnormal lipids, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = vascular disease
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9/79. The clinical implications of insulin resistance.

    insulin resistance is a prime risk factor associated with atherosclerosis and thrombosis. Other risk factors include dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension. The constellation of those factors, which is known as the cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome, increases the risk of macrovascular disease. insulin resistance may contribute directly to cardiovascular disease and may also act as a precursor of diabetes, which is also associated with an increased risk of macrovascular disease. insulin resistance can be difficult to assess clinically, but it is invariably present in patients with type 2 diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, or impaired glucose tolerance. Treatment of insulin resistance includes diet, exercise, smoking cessation, strict control of hypertension, aggressive treatment of lipid abnormalities, and keeping the hemoglobin A1c level below 7%. New oral agents improve glycemic control for those with diabetes or insulin resistance, but their role in reducing the risk of macrovascular disease is undetermined.
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ranking = 2
keywords = vascular disease
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10/79. Impairment rating of the cardiovascular system: Idiopathic cardiomyopathy.

    Disease of the cardiovascular system is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the adult population in the united states. physicians performing impairment ratings attributable to cardiovascular disease are required to correlate the extent of the disease and its impact on a person's daily activities. A person's final impairment determination may vary based on the specific guidelines used (american medical association Guides to the Evaluation for Permanent Impairment, social security, State Worker Compensation requirements, etc.), the version of the guidelines (year, edition), and each guide's specific criteria. The examiner needs to know which rating system to use, the system's criteria, critical definitions, and potential limitations.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = vascular disease
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