Cases reported "Carotid Artery Diseases"

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1/468. Carotid artery fistula after cataract surgery.

    To determine carotid cavernous fistula associated with choroidal detachment after cataract surgery. A 77-year-old woman underwent cataract surgery in both eyes. Postoperatively, proptosis and dilation of episcleral vessels in her left eye occurred and gradually increased. One month later, choroidal detachment developed in her left eye. Computed tomography showed an enlarged superior ophthalmic vein. Selected cerebral angiography showed fistulas between the megingeal branches of both the internal and external carotid arteries and the cavernous sinus. After the neurosurgical treatment, these symptoms disappeared. The development of carotid cavernous fistula after cataract surgery, as demonstrated in our patient, may be uncommon. [Ophthalmic Surg lasers 1998;30:160-162.] Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Ocular manifestation of the fistula includes proptosis, pulsation of the globe, orbital bruit, episcleral vein dilation, and chemosis. CCF is divided into spontaneous or traumatic by cause and direct or dural by angiographic findings. To our knowledge, CCF development after cataract surgery may be uncommon. We recently examined a patient with such a condition.
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2/468. "Kissing" bilateral large carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms. A case report.

    A case of unruptured bilateral large carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms, which appear to be adjoining and "kissing" each other when visualized by three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3-D CTA), is reported. Although bilateral carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms are not rare, bilateral large ones are quite rare, and direct imaging of "kissing aneurysms" of this portion has not been reported. Since 3-D CTA is becoming a useful tool for the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms, we propose that these and similar bilateral large carotid-ophthalmic aneurysms are good candidates for the term "kissing aneurysms".
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3/468. Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke.

    PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. methods: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.
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ranking = 5
keywords = cerebral
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4/468. De novo formation of familial cerebral aneurysms: case report.

    OBJECTIVES: The factors regulating the formation and growth of cerebral aneurysms are poorly understood. We report the case of a patient whose grandfather had a cerebral aneurysm and who developed numerous de novo aneurysms of varying size 9 years after the treatment of a first aneurysm. This observation sheds light on the cause and growth of cerebral aneurysms in familial cases that may be pertinent to sporadic cases. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old man was admitted to the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1956 for an ultimately fatal, autopsy-proven, ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm. His granddaughter was first admitted to the same institution in 1984 after suffering a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured right terminal internal carotid artery aneurysm that was successfully treated. Four-vessel cerebral angiography did not reveal other aneurysms. The granddaughter was readmitted to the hospital 9 years later after a new, lumbar puncture-proven subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred. cerebral angiography demonstrated that the previously clipped aneurysm did not fill. However, five new aneurysms were present. INTERVENTION: An anterior communicating artery aneurysm, thought to be the one that bled, was surgically clipped, and a large right posterior communicating artery aneurysm was coiled endovascularly. The remaining, smaller aneurysms were left untreated. CONCLUSION: The appearance of five new aneurysms during a 9-year interval suggests that there may be a genetic factor operating in the development of cerebral aneurysms in families and that this may produce a more widespread cerebral arteriopathy than is generally appreciated. patients with treated cerebral aneurysms from families in which two or more individuals have cerebral aneurysms, and perhaps their first and second degree relatives who have had negative angiograms, should be considered for periodic follow-up cerebrovascular imaging to rule out the subsequent development of de novo aneurysms.
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ranking = 12
keywords = cerebral
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5/468. Carotid ligation for carotid aneurysms.

    Thirty patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage due to rupture of a carotid aneurysm were treated by ligation of the common carotid artery. Two patients died as a result of the procedure, two patients developed persisting hemisphere deficit. Eight of the ten patients who developed cerebral ischemia after the operation were operated within ten days after the bleeding. At present out aim is to guide the patient safely through the first ten days after his haemorrhage and perform ligation at the end of the second week. After a follow up period of 1-8 years recurrent haemorrhage did not occur. Common carotid ligation, preferably with control of carotid artery end pressure, cerebral blood-flow and EEG is considered to be a valuable method to treat ruptured intracranial carotid aneurysm.
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ranking = 2
keywords = cerebral
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6/468. hemianopsia related to dissection of the internal carotid artery.

    Spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery is typically associated with cerebral vascular infarction along the anterior and middle cerebral distribution, whereas occipital infarction is usually related to posterior circulation abnormalities. hemianopsia with occipital infarction related to carotid artery dissection has therefore rarely been reported. A 40-year-old woman in whom acute-onset hemianopsia developed, related to occipital infarction secondary to internal artery dissection, is described. This atypical association is explained by anatomic variations of the posterior part of the circle of willis. Neuroimages showed occipital infarction related to internal carotid artery dissection associated with hypoplasia of the proximal portion of the cerebral posterior artery (P1). The anatomic correlation of this atypical association and a review of the literature are presented.
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ranking = 3
keywords = cerebral
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7/468. Endovascular stent placement for cervical internal carotid artery aneurysm causing cerebral embolism: usefulness of neuroradiological evaluation.

    We present a case of a cervical internal carotid artery aneurysm that caused cerebral embolism. This lesion was supposed to be a dissecting aneurysm due to blunt neck injury. The large aneurysm with intramural thrombus was treated with endovascular placement of a balloon-expandable stent. Both CT and MRI were useful for evaluating the size and characteristics of the aneurysmal wall. Intravascular ultrasound imaging was also useful for evaluation of the satisfactory stent deployment and identification of the neck of the aneurysm. We discuss effectiveness of endovascular stenting for cervical internal carotid artery aneurysm with intramural thrombus and the usefulness of a combination of the neuroradiological imaging before, during and after the interventional procedure.
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ranking = 5
keywords = cerebral
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8/468. Curved planar reformatted CT angiography: usefulness for the evaluation of aneurysms at the carotid siphon.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Three-dimensional CT angiography uses the data obtained on a contrast-enhanced CT brain scan to generate 3D images of the intracranial vasculature. We describe the methodology of curved planar reformatting (CPR) for CT angiography and characterize its usefulness in the evaluation of aneurysms at the carotid siphon, comparing it with the shaded surface display technique (SSD). methods: Eighty-seven patients with suspected intracranial aneurysms at CT angiography were examined by conventional cerebral angiography, and the patients with aneurysm(s) at the carotid siphon were selected for study. For these patients, the visibility of the neck and fundus of the aneurysms on CT angiograms was compared for those obtained with SSD and those with CPR, and observer reproducibility was evaluated with the kappa statistic. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were confirmed to have an aneurysm at the carotid siphon on conventional angiograms. Seventeen aneurysms were depicted at CT angiography with SSD; 18 aneurysms with CPR. The number of visible aneurysmal necks and fundi was nine and 12, respectively, with SSD; 18 and 18, respectively, with CPR. CONCLUSION: CPR allows better demonstration of the body and neck of an aneurysm at the carotid siphon, which has a tortuous course and is surrounded by complex bony structures. CPR may be a useful adjunct for the evaluation of aneurysms in this region.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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9/468. The use of an external-internal shunt in the treatment of extracranial internal carotid artery saccular aneurysms: technical case report.

    BACKGROUND: Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms (EICAA) are rare lesions. Resection and grafting is the preferred method of management. However, the details of shunt use in surgery for this type of aneurysm has been described in few articles. We describe an external-internal shunt with intra-aneurysmal trans-orifice insertion. CASE REPORT: A 55-year-old woman presented with a 5-year history of a progressively enlarging pulsatile neck mass. An examination revealed no neurological deficit. Right carotid angiogram showed a saccular EICAA involving the ICA distal to the bifurcation, with kinking of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The dome of the EICAA extended from the upper border of C4 to the midportion of C2 and the maximum diameter was 4 cm. RESULTS: Using the shunt technique, we successfully removed the aneurysm and reconstructed the ICA. The end-to-end anastomosis was easy because the shunt was involved only in the distal free end of the ICA, but not in the proximal free end of the ICA. CONCLUSION: This technique could be an option for the treatment of EICCA when a shunt is needed to maintain the cerebral circulation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = cerebral
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10/468. An uncommon cause of stroke in young adults.

    We describe a previously healthy 48-year-old man who presented with clinical characteristics suggestive of internal carotid artery dissection, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. He developed a massive infarction of the left cerebral hemisphere and died after 3 days of transtentorial herniation. Post-mortem examination identified a dissection of the thoracic aorta caused by Erdheim-Gsell cystic medionecrosis, with the characteristic degeneration of the elastic fibers of the lamina media. The dissection showed an unusually large extension not only distally into both iliac arteries, but also proximally into both carotid arteries. To our knowledge, such an extensive dissection has not been described previously. Underlying vessel wall disorders of the aorta, such as Erdheim Gsell cystic medionecrosis, should be considered in young patients with spontaneous arterial dissection.
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keywords = cerebral
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