Cases reported "Carotid Artery Diseases"

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1/271. Carotid artery fistula after cataract surgery.

    To determine carotid cavernous fistula associated with choroidal detachment after cataract surgery. A 77-year-old woman underwent cataract surgery in both eyes. Postoperatively, proptosis and dilation of episcleral vessels in her left eye occurred and gradually increased. One month later, choroidal detachment developed in her left eye. Computed tomography showed an enlarged superior ophthalmic vein. Selected cerebral angiography showed fistulas between the megingeal branches of both the internal and external carotid arteries and the cavernous sinus. After the neurosurgical treatment, these symptoms disappeared. The development of carotid cavernous fistula after cataract surgery, as demonstrated in our patient, may be uncommon. [Ophthalmic Surg lasers 1998;30:160-162.] Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Ocular manifestation of the fistula includes proptosis, pulsation of the globe, orbital bruit, episcleral vein dilation, and chemosis. CCF is divided into spontaneous or traumatic by cause and direct or dural by angiographic findings. To our knowledge, CCF development after cataract surgery may be uncommon. We recently examined a patient with such a condition.
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2/271. Percutaneous transfemoral embolization of an indirect carotid-cavernous fistula with cortical venous access to the cavernous sinus. Case report.

    The authors present the case of a 61-year-old man with an indirect carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF). Many now advocate a primary transvenous approach to deal with such lesions, with packing and thrombosis of the cavernous sinus leading to fistula obliteration. Transvenous access to the cavernous sinus via the inferior petrosal sinus is the usual route of access; both surgical and transfemoral superior ophthalmic vein approaches are also well described. In the case presented, the anatomy of the CCF was unfavorable for these approaches and its dominant venous egress was via a single enlarged arterialized cortical vein. The cavernous sinus was accessed with a transfemoral retrograde approach to the cortical draining vein. Successful CCF embolization was documented radiographically and clinically. To the authors' knowledge, this procedure has not been previously described in the English literature.
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3/271. Cavernous aneurysm rupture with balloon occlusion of a direct carotid cavernous fistula: postmortem examination.

    We present a unique case of a patient with a symptomatic carotid cavernous fistula treated successfully with balloon embolization. Her subsequent death from other disease processes allowed direct visualization of the balloon occlusion in situ at postmortem examination.
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4/271. Simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and carotid cavernous fistula after rupture of a paraclinoid aneurysm during balloon-assisted coil embolization.

    We describe an iatrogenic perforation of a paraclinoid aneurysm during balloon-assisted coil embolization that resulted in simultaneous subarachnoid contrast extravasation and a carotid cavernous fistula. The causative factors specifically related to the balloon-assisted method that led to aneurysm rupture are discussed as well as strategies for dealing with this complication.
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5/271. Detachable balloon embolization: concomitant use of a second safety balloon.

    We describe a relatively unusual case of carotid cavernous fistula in association with a persistent trigeminal artery, presumably related to aneurysm rupture near the carotid origin of the vessel. We emphasize the use of a second, nondetachable balloon solely for the purpose of stabilizing placement of the first device at the time of detachment.
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6/271. Balloon reconstructive technique for the treatment of a carotid cavernous fistula.

    Endovascular treatment of carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) presents many technical difficulties and hazards, some unique to each patient. This report details some of the difficulties encountered in the treatment of a 63-year-old patient with a CCF and an ipsilateral internal carotid artery dissection. After failure of conventional techniques using a detachable balloon, complete closure of the CCF was achieved by transvenous coil embolization while the arterial lumen was protected by a nondetachable balloon catheter.
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7/271. Embolization of the meningohypophyseal trunk as a cause of diabetes insipidus.

    We present an unusual case of diabetes insipidus occurring after selective embolization of 50% dextrose and pure ethanol into an enlarged left meningohypophyseal trunk (MHT) supplying a dural carotid cavernous fistula. The inferior hypophyseal artery was not opacified during the selective preembolization MHT injection; however, diabetes insipidus developed abruptly a few hours after the procedure. The patient required intranasal 1-deamino-(8-D-arginine)-vasopressin for approximately 3 months, after which his symptoms resolved. The hazards of using liquid embolic agents, especially ethanol, in the cavernous branches of the internal carotid artery should always be borne in mind.
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8/271. brachial plexus and supraclavicular nerve injury caused by manual carotid compression for spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula.

    BACKGROUND: Manual carotid compression is an established treatment for a spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula unless emergency treatment is required for it. CASE REPORT: A 63-year-old woman presented with a spontaneous carotid-cavernous sinus fistula. Manual carotid compression of 5 minutes duration, twice a day, for 10 days resulted in injury to the upper trunk (C 5-6) of the brachial plexus and the supraclavicular nerve (C 3-4), which subsequently resolved within a month after cessation of the procedure. CONCLUSION: It is important to know the possible neurological complications of manual carotid compression.
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9/271. Tracheocarotid artery fistula infected with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus.

    Massive life-threatening haemorrhage from a fistula between the trachea and a major blood vessel of the neck is a rare complication of the tracheostomy procedure, well-recognized by anaesthetists and otolaryngologists. Although the lesion is likely to be encountered at autopsy, it is not described in histopathological literature. The possible causes are discussed together with the macroscopic and microscopic appearances of the lesion. Suitable procedures for its identification and for obtaining appropriate histopathological blocks are suggested. Presence of methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has not been documented before and might have contributed to the genesis of the fistula in this case.
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10/271. Direct caroticocavernous fistula and traumatic dissection of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery: endovascular treatment.

    After severe craniocerebral trauma a 14-year-old boy developed progressive exophthalmos with venous congestion and chemosis, due to a direct caroticocavernous fistula. Angiography revealed traumatic occlusion of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery and absence of the inferior petrosal sinus. After failure of an approach via the anterior and posterior communicating arteries, the cavernous sinus was successfully catheterised through the occluded internal carotid artery, and embolisation performed with coils.
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