Cases reported "Carotid Artery Diseases"

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1/18. De novo formation of familial cerebral aneurysms: case report.

    OBJECTIVES: The factors regulating the formation and growth of cerebral aneurysms are poorly understood. We report the case of a patient whose grandfather had a cerebral aneurysm and who developed numerous de novo aneurysms of varying size 9 years after the treatment of a first aneurysm. This observation sheds light on the cause and growth of cerebral aneurysms in familial cases that may be pertinent to sporadic cases. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 58-year-old man was admitted to the Montreal Neurological Institute in 1956 for an ultimately fatal, autopsy-proven, ruptured internal carotid artery aneurysm. His granddaughter was first admitted to the same institution in 1984 after suffering a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured right terminal internal carotid artery aneurysm that was successfully treated. Four-vessel cerebral angiography did not reveal other aneurysms. The granddaughter was readmitted to the hospital 9 years later after a new, lumbar puncture-proven subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred. cerebral angiography demonstrated that the previously clipped aneurysm did not fill. However, five new aneurysms were present. INTERVENTION: An anterior communicating artery aneurysm, thought to be the one that bled, was surgically clipped, and a large right posterior communicating artery aneurysm was coiled endovascularly. The remaining, smaller aneurysms were left untreated. CONCLUSION: The appearance of five new aneurysms during a 9-year interval suggests that there may be a genetic factor operating in the development of cerebral aneurysms in families and that this may produce a more widespread cerebral arteriopathy than is generally appreciated. patients with treated cerebral aneurysms from families in which two or more individuals have cerebral aneurysms, and perhaps their first and second degree relatives who have had negative angiograms, should be considered for periodic follow-up cerebrovascular imaging to rule out the subsequent development of de novo aneurysms.
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2/18. A giant internal carotid-posterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting with atypical trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve palsy in a patient with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: In cases of internal carotid-posterior communicating artery (IC-PC) aneurysm, involvement of the trigeminal nerve at its root is rare, and facial nerve palsy is even more unusual. CASE REPORT: A large, unruptured IC-PC aneurysm was detected in a 56-year-old man with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), but surgery was not performed because of mild renal dysfunction. Two months later, a sudden, severe headache suggested a subarachnoid hemorrhage, which was ruled out by computed tomography and lumbar puncture. Neurological examination revealed complete oculomotor palsy, atypical trigeminal neuralgia, and facial palsy with gustatory disturbance. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm that directly compressed the trigeminal nerve root, reached the internal auditory canal, and was adjacent to the facial nerve. The neck of the aneurysm was successfully clipped via a subtemporal transtentorial approach. The postoperative course was uneventful, and all neurological symptoms had resolved within 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that the prosopalgia in this case was atypical trigeminal neuralgia due to direct compression of the trigeminal nerve root by the aneurysmal sac. A contributory cause was stretching of the oculomotor nerve, which contains sensory afferent inhibitory fibers derived from the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. The facial palsy was of peripheral type and was accompanied by gustatory disturbance. This is the first reported case of facial palsy caused by an IC-PC aneurysm and also a very rare case of an IC-PC aneurysm clipped by a subtemporal transtentorial approach.
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3/18. Complete penetration of the optic chiasm by an unruptured aneurysm of the ophthalmic segment: case report.

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that aneurysms of the ophthalmic segment sometimes elevate the optic nerve or chiasm, and in case of large or giant aneurysms, the optic apparatus can be dramatically thinned. Nonetheless, they rarely penetrate the optic pathway completely. To our knowledge, no previous reports have dealt with the complete penetration of the optic chiasm by unruptured aneurysms of the ophthalmic segment. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 70-year-old woman presented with visual dysfunction in her left eye that she had experienced for several months. Her left visual acuity had rapidly deteriorated to the level of finger counting and visual field testing demonstrated nasal hemianopsia in the left eye and upper temporal quadrant hemianopsia in the right eye. Left internal carotid angiograms and three-dimensional digital subtraction angiograms showed an aneurysm of the ophthalmic segment projecting superomedially. Intraoperative findings revealed complete penetration of the optic chiasm by the fundus of the aneurysm. The optic pathway adjacent to the dome had become remarkably thin and dark yellow. After clipping was completed, the fundus of the aneurysm was punctured to decompress the optic chiasm. Postoperatively, patient's visual acuity in the left eye gradually recovered, but the visual field deficit persisted after the operation. CONCLUSION: This rare case demonstrates the potentially aggressive behavior of unruptured aneurysms of the ophthalmic segment. patients with unruptured aneurysms of the ophthalmic segment who present with visual symptoms should be treated with surgical clipping to decompress the optic pathway as soon as possible.
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4/18. Double microcatheter technique for endovascular coiling of wide-neck aneurysms using a new guiding device for the transcarotid approach: technical note.

    In the endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular diseases, positioning the guiding catheter is of great importance. In cases where vessel tortuosity prohibits positioning the guiding catheter in the carotid artery via the femoral approach, we use a direct carotid approach via common carotid artery puncture. For direct puncture of the common carotid artery we devised a 6-Fr sheath with double insertion points. This new device facilitates the use of double microcatheters and provides safe and effective vascular access.
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5/18. Emergent endovascular treatment with direct carotid puncture for exsanguinating Carotid Blowout Syndrome.

    INTRODUCTION: Carotid Blowout Syndrome (CBS) carries an exceedingly high mortality rate. Various established endovascular techniques are successful in treating less acute CBS, but exsanguinating patients with hemodynamic compromise continue to pose a significant clinical challenge. methods: We report a 53-year-old male with squamous cell carcinoma of the anterior tongue presented with a sentinel hemoptysis followed by a massive oral hemorrhage. The patient suffered a cardiac arrest secondary to acute blood loss, from which he was successfully resuscitated. RESULTS: An occlusion technique is presented involving direct carotid puncture for successful treatment of hemodynamically unstable, exsanguinating patients. CONCLUSION: This technique accomplishes rapid arrest of exsanguination, minimal hemorrhage site manipulation, and successful carotid occlusion.
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6/18. Direct carotid puncture for the endovascular treatment of anterior circulation aneurysms.

    We report the usefulness of Guglielmi detachable coil (GDC) embolization by direct carotid puncture for anterior circulation aneurysms. For all 27 patients, GDC embolization by direct carotid puncture was safely performed by using a 5F sheath introducer 5 cm long and a Tracker-38 catheter. Neurologic deficits and hemorrhage were not found in any patient during the follow-up period. If the transfemoral approach cannot be applied, GDC embolization should be considered as an alternative method.
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7/18. Retrograde suction decompression of giant paraclinoid aneurysms using a No. 7 French balloon-containing guide catheter. Technical note.

    The treatment of large and giant paraclinoid carotid artery (CA) aneurysms often requires the use of suction decompression for safe and effective occlusion. Both open and endovascular suction decompression techniques have been described previously. In this article the authors describe a revised endovascular suction decompression technique that provides several advantages in the treatment of large and giant paraclinoid and CA aneurysms. A 51-year-old woman presented with a relatively brief history of progressive visual loss in the right eye, nonspecific headache, and an afferent pupillary defect. After angiography studies had been obtained, it was determined that she had a giant right paraclinoid internal CA aneurysm with a dome size of approximately 26 mm on the right and a neck diameter of 10 mm. A modified technique was performed in which suction decompression was used. With the aid of a No. 7 French Concentric balloon guide catheter (Concentric Medical, Inc., Mountain View, CA) and application of a temporary clip distal to the aneurysm, the aneurysm was trapped and decompressed using retrograde suction through the guide catheter when the balloon was inflated. After satisfactory placement of three permanent clips, an intraoperative angiogram obtained through the same guide catheter confirmed CA patency. The aneurysm was then punctured and aspirated, ensuring complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac and reconstruction of the parent vessel. The patient made an excellent recovery and did not suffer any complications. She did not experience worsening in her vision. This technical modification to endovascular suction decompression allows several potential advantages, including higher volume decompression and the ability to deliver endovascular devices to distal arterial locations.
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8/18. Treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas associated with ehlers-danlos syndrome.

    Four patients with ehlers-danlos syndrome presented spontaneously with symptomatic direct carotid-cavernous fistulas. Two had previously (2 and 15 years, respectively) had contralateral carotid-cavernous fistulas that were treated with carotid occlusion procedures. The patients' ages at presentation ranged from 19 to 49 years, with a mean of 32 years. All four patients underwent attempted embolization procedures. Two patients had transarterial embolization, one with balloons and liquid adhesives, one with platinum coils and a balloon; the carotid artery was preserved in one and sacrificed in one other. In one patient, who underwent direct puncture of the carotid artery, a massive hematoma causing airway compromise required intubation and emergent surgical repair. The fistula spontaneously closed during this event. In the fourth patient, two transvenous embolizations resulted in markedly decreased flow, but diversion of residual flow to cortical veins produced a fatal pontine hemorrhage. The vascular fragility associated with ehlers-danlos syndrome can produce spontaneous direct carotid-cavernous fistulas and makes both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures more difficult.
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9/18. Simple and quick non-invasive evaluation of circulatory condition of cerebral arteries by clinical application of the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test".

    Using the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test," generalized abnormal circulation of the distribution of the 3 cerebral arteries at each side of the brain (i.e., anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery) can be predicted, without any expensive instruments usually in a few minutes. When abnormality was found in the bifurcation area of the common carotid artery by the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test," there were always abnormal findings of the area of the brain where circulation was coming from either one or both of the anterior or middle cerebral arteries. When abnormal "Bi-Digital O-Ring" response was found at the vertebral artery and posterior cerebral artery representation point, discovered by the author, at the side of the 6th cervical vertebra (corresponding to the entry point of the vertebral artery into the transverse foramen), the areas of the cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem where circulation is coming from the posterior cerebral artery, basilar artery and vertebral artery were also abnormal. Most of these abnormalities were found to be associated with problems of the cervical vertebrae and spastic muscles of the neck and shoulders and are often reversible. In this study, the author was able to differentiate abnormal brain circulation of any major branch of arteries in the brain due to organic changes or functional reversible changes by relaxing these spastic muscles and improving the circulation of the neck and shoulder area by giving either manual acupuncture, massage, or transcutaneous electrical stimulation. This in turn often improved brain circulation. If it was a functional abnormality, within a few minutes after one of these procedures the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test" usually showed normal response or improvement. However, if it was an organic abnormality, the abnormality remained. When the supra-orbital arterial blood pressure at both sides of the forehead decreases below 40 or 30 mmHg, most patients develop so-called "Cephalic hypotension Syndrome," which is characterized by sleep disturbance pattern; difficulty in concentration; easy forgetfulness of recent events; irritability; decreased pain threshold with or without depression; spastic skeletal muscles, particularly the neck, shoulder and back areas. All of these symptoms can be explained by decreased circulation to the Nucleus Raphe Centralis Superior (controls sleep and waking pattern), Nucleus Raphe Magnus (serotonin & modulation of pain), Nucleus Reticularis Giganto Cellularis (controls muscle tone), etc. in reticular formation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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10/18. Occlusion of arteriovenous malformations of the cavernous sinus via the superior ophthalmic vein.

    The treatment of five patients with dural arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the cavernous sinus via the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) is reported. The procedure was performed by transcutaneous puncture of the SOV under the guidance of real-time digital subtraction angiography. Complete resolution of the ocular symptoms was achieved in all cases. Angiograms after embolization showed complete obliteration of the malformation in four cases and partial obliteration in one. This method can cure dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus, with preservation of blood flow in the internal carotid artery. It is particularly indicated when the SOV is enlarged and when (1) dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus are fed by small branches of the internal carotid artery or direct carotid cavernous fistulas with small tears; (2) dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus are fed by multiple branches from both the internal and external carotid arteries, one or both sides; or (3) dural AVMs of the cavernous sinus or direct carotid cavernous fistulas recur after trapping of the internal carotid artery. Transcutaneous puncture and catheterization of the SOV was performed safely with the aid of digital subtraction angiography. The SOV approach was able to treat the fistula with preservation of the internal carotid artery.
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