Cases reported "Carotid Stenosis"

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1/4. Is there a potential role for hyoid bone compression in pathogenesis of carotid artery stenosis?

    BACKGROUND: blood flow turbulence and increased shear stress, particularly at sites of sudden, marked arterial wall changes, are significant hemodynamic parameters in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We present a case in which we found the hyoid bone protruding into the carotid vessels and may have been contributing, in part, to atherosclerotic carotid stenosis. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old woman presenting with left arm and leg weakness consistent with right hemispheric transient ischemic attack. Magnetic resonance arteriography (MRA) and carotid non-invasive studies revealed a 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery. At surgery, the hyoid bone on the right side was projecting into the internal carotid artery, causing indentation. There was associated rotation of the internal and external carotid arteries from their normal position. Right carotid endarterectomy was performed and the lateral one-third of the hyoid bone excised to alleviate the external compression. Postoperative spiral computerized tomography (CT) scan of the carotid vessels demonstrated the extent of hyoid resection as well as rotation of the external and internal carotid arteries. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest the possible contribution of hyoid bone compression to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis. This report also highlights the diagnostic value of CT angiography in the assessment of carotid artery occlusive disease.
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ranking = 1
keywords = bone
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2/4. Lamellar bone formation in an atherosclerotic plaque of the carotid artery, with a review of histogenesis--a case report.

    Longer existing atherosclerotic lesions may contain calcifications; lamellar bone rarely develops within them. A 59-year-old man was referred with a progressive stroke. A high-grade stenosis of the left common carotid artery, formed by an ulcerating atherosclerotic plaque with a free-floating thrombus, was detected on angiography. An urgent endarterectomy was performed. Surprisingly this plaque contained pieces of lamellar bone, proved by histologic examination.
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ranking = 0.75
keywords = bone
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3/4. Sterol 27-hydroxylase acts on 7-ketocholesterol in human atherosclerotic lesions and macrophages in culture.

    27-Hydroxycholesterol (27OH) is the major oxysterol in human atherosclerotic lesions, followed by 7-ketocholesterol (7K). Whereas 7K probably originates nonenzymically, 27OH arises by the action of sterol 27-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 enzyme expressed at particularly high levels in the macrophage and proposed to represent an important pathway by which macrophages eliminate excess cholesterol. We hypothesized and here show that 27-hydroxylated 7-ketocholesterol (270H-7K) is present in human lesions, probably generated by the action of sterol 27-hydroxylase on 7K. Moreover, [(3)H]27OH-7K was produced by human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) supplied with [(3)H]7K but not in HMDMs from a patient with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) shown to have a splice-junction mutation of sterol 27-hydroxylase. Whereas [(3)H]27OH-7K was predominantly secreted into the medium, [(3)H]-27OH formed from [(3)H]-cholesterol was mostly cell-associated. The majority of supplied [(3)H]7K was metabolized beyond 27OH-7K to aqueous-soluble products (apparently bile acids derived from the sterol 27-hydroxylase pathway). metabolism to aqueous-soluble products was ablated by a sterol 27-hydroxylase inhibitor and absent in CTX cells. Sterol 27-hydroxylase therefore appears to represent an important pathway by which macrophages eliminate not only cholesterol but also oxysterols such as 7K. The fact that 7K (and cholesterol) still accumulates in lesions and foam cells indicates that this pathway may be perturbed in atherosclerosis and affords a new opportunity for the development of therapeutic strategies to regress atherosclerotic lesions.
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ranking = 1316.2161594809
keywords = macrophage
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4/4. Amebic meningoencephalitis caused by balamuthia mandrillaris.

    Free-living amebae etiologically associated with central nervous system (CNS) infection in children have included acanthamoeba, naegleria, and recently, leptomyxid ameba. Two previously healthy children are reported with CNS infection caused by leptomyxid ameba, recently classified as balamuthia mandrillaris. One child, a 27-month-old boy, had right hemiparesis and aphasia, and the other, a 13-year-old girl, had headache, right hemiparesis, diplopia, and left facial weakness. cerebrospinal fluid studies of both children revealed a mononuclear pleocytosis and mildly elevated protein. The younger child developed seizures and progressive cerebrovascular occlusions; both developed hydrocephalus and coma progressing to death 16 days after onset of symptoms. The younger child at autopsy had necrotizing meningoencephalitis, left internal carotid arteritis, and amebic trophozoites and cysts in brain. Perivascular trophozoites were difficult to distinguish morphologically from macrophages in the older child, who had no cyst forms. Indirect immunofluorescence test revealed CNS infection with B. mandrillaris in both. This leptomyxid ameba, formerly considered an innocuous soil organism, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive or atypical childhood stroke.
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ranking = 164.52701993512
keywords = macrophage
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