Cases reported "Carotid Stenosis"

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11/269. Is there a potential role for hyoid bone compression in pathogenesis of carotid artery stenosis?

    BACKGROUND: blood flow turbulence and increased shear stress, particularly at sites of sudden, marked arterial wall changes, are significant hemodynamic parameters in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We present a case in which we found the hyoid bone protruding into the carotid vessels and may have been contributing, in part, to atherosclerotic carotid stenosis. CASE PRESENTATION: An 85-year-old woman presenting with left arm and leg weakness consistent with right hemispheric transient ischemic attack. Magnetic resonance arteriography (MRA) and carotid non-invasive studies revealed a 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery. At surgery, the hyoid bone on the right side was projecting into the internal carotid artery, causing indentation. There was associated rotation of the internal and external carotid arteries from their normal position. Right carotid endarterectomy was performed and the lateral one-third of the hyoid bone excised to alleviate the external compression. Postoperative spiral computerized tomography (CT) scan of the carotid vessels demonstrated the extent of hyoid resection as well as rotation of the external and internal carotid arteries. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest the possible contribution of hyoid bone compression to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis. This report also highlights the diagnostic value of CT angiography in the assessment of carotid artery occlusive disease.
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12/269. Treatment of carotid tandem stenosis by combined carotid endarterectomy and balloon angioplasty: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Cervical internal carotid artery disease associated with high-grade carotid siphon stenosis poses a therapeutic challenge. This report describes the combination therapy of carotid end-arterectomy and intraoperative transluminal balloon angioplasty of the carotid siphon. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old man sustained repeated left hemispheric and retinal transient ischemic attacks. Results of a diagnostic examination, including angiography, disclosed a 70% ulcerative stenosis of the left extracranial internal carotid artery as well as a 90% stenosis of the left intracavernous carotid artery. The decision was made for combined open and endovascular therapy. INTERVENTION: After standard endarterectomy, an introducer for the dilation catheter was placed into the common carotid artery before final closure of the arteriotomy and recirculation. Under intraoperative fluoroscopy, a 3-mm dilation balloon was navigated into the carotid siphon stenosis and inflated several times. A 30% residual stenosis in the carotid siphon was obtained as a final result. The intervention was completed without complications. No further neurological symptoms were observed during the follow-up period of 30 months. CONCLUSION: Carotid endarterectomy, combined with intraoperative transluminal angioplasty of carotid siphon stenosis, is a feasible procedure for selected patients with carotid tandem stenosis.
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ranking = 1.5714285714286
keywords = stenosis
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13/269. Intraoperative stenting of the internal carotid artery after unsuccessful eversion endarterectomy.

    Stenting of the internal carotid artery (ICA) has been shown to be feasible in atherosclerotic lesions, in restenosis after carotid endarterectomy, and in spontaneous carotid dissections. To correct an intimal flap that detached distal occlusion of the ICA after eversion carotid endarterectomy, as shown with intraoperative completion angiography, we successfully used stenting of the ica with a self-expandable stainless steel stent placed during surgery through the common carotid artery.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = stenosis
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14/269. Viable tissue in an area of severely reduced perfusion demonstrated with I-123 iomazenil brain SPECT imaging of benzodiazepine receptors.

    A 70-year-old woman who experienced transient left hemiparesis had 90% stenosis of the right internal carotid artery. CT revealed small low-density areas in the subcortical frontal area. Baseline cerebral blood flow was reduced, and vasoreactivity was poor in the right frontoparietal area according to I-123 IMP brain SPECT with acetazolamide. The distribution of I-123 iomazenil was normal on the delayed SPECT image but reduced in the early SPECT image, mimicking baseline cerebral blood flow. The distribution of I-123 iomazenil SPECT on the delayed image reflected the normal binding potential of the benzodiazepine receptor and thus identified viable tissue in an area of severely reduced perfusion. These findings were confirmed by positron emission tomography.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = stenosis
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15/269. Transient ischaemic attacks related to carotid stenosis precipitated by straining, bending, and sneezing.

    Three patients are described in whom one or more carotid territory transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) were preceded by sneezing, straining, or bending over. It is argued that the mechanism involved dislodgment of embolic material from the site of carotid atheroma. This mechanism should be considered as an alternative to paradoxical embolism when TIAs are precipitated by such physiological manoeuvres. Furthermore, TIAs should be added to the list of medical hazards associated with such events.
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ranking = 0.57142857142857
keywords = stenosis
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16/269. Practice variability in management of transient ischemic attacks.

    To define practice patterns in the management of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), we surveyed practicing neurologists attending an educational conference in san francisco, evaluating management decisions in 2 TIA case vignettes. In a vignette describing a hemispheric TIA 1 day prior with ipsilateral bruit, 53% chose admission, 47% elected an outpatient work-up, 28% treated with intravenous heparin and 70% chose aspirin, reflecting the disagreement about medical management of carotid stenosis in the literature. There was more agreement in the second case, a posterior circulation TIA 1 day prior with atrial fibrillation, in which 84% chose hospital admission, 74% chose intravenous heparin and 90% treated with some form of anticoagulation. There are areas of important practice variability in the management of TIAs. Further research is justified to guide patient care decisions in TIA patients.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = stenosis
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17/269. Persistent primitive hypoglossal artery associated with cerebral aneurysm and cervical internal carotid artery stenosis--case report.

    A 71-year-old female had vertigo attacks once or twice a day secondary to vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Left carotid angiography revealed persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) associated with a large internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysm and severe stenosis of the ICA. The bilateral vertebral arteries were hypoplastic. The basilar artery was opacified via the PPHA but not via vertebral arteries. Clipping of the aneurysm was performed first because the risk of rupture of the aneurysm was not negligible. One month after clipping, carotid endarterectomy using a T-shaped shunt system was successfully performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the vertebrobasilar ischemic attacks did not recur. Left carotid angiography demonstrated complete obliteration of the aneurysm and disappearance of the carotid artery stenosis. Low ICA flow (70 ml/min) and low stump pressure of the PPHA (25 mmHg) strongly suggested low perfusion of the posterior circulation. Carotid endarterectomy may be essential for augmentation of the posterior circulation in patients with PPHA associated with ICA stenosis.
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18/269. External carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty using internal jugular vein--two case reports.

    A 59-year-old male and a 74-year-old male presented with occlusion of the right internal carotid artery and stenosis at the origin of the ipsilateral external carotid artery manifesting as cerebral ischemia. External carotid endarterectomy with patch angioplasty using the internal jugular vein was performed. Special care was taken to obliterate the stump of the carotid artery using a Weck clip in one case and plication with non-absorbable sutures in the other. Cerebral blood flow in the affected hemisphere was increased after surgery and the patients remained asymptomatic. External carotid endarterectomy has several special aspects such as patch angioplasty and elimination of the stump which must be understood.
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ranking = 0.14285714285714
keywords = stenosis
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19/269. Improved cerebral perfusion after stenting of a petrous carotid stenosis: technical case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Atherosclerotic occlusive disease of the intracranial vasculature is associated with increased risk of systemic vascular occlusive disease and stroke. Therapeutic options have included anticoagulation therapy, antiplatelet therapy, or, in a limited number of patients, extracranial-intracranial vascular bypass procedures. We report a patient who had improved cerebral perfusion with silent watershed zone infarctions after endovascular stenting of a severe petrous segment carotid stenosis. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 73-year-old man with severe coronary artery disease and unstable angina was referred for treatment of a 90% right petrous carotid artery stenosis before coronary artery bypass grafting. A brain single-photon emission computed tomographic scan using 99mTc-bicisate revealed diminished perfusion throughout the right internal carotid artery territory, particularly in posterior watershed zones. TECHNIQUE: The patient underwent transfemoral placement of a 7-French introducer sheath, followed by a 7-French guide catheter. Urokinase (225,000 U) was infused through a microcatheter placed proximal to the lesion. No changes were noted in lesion morphology after this infusion. A microguidewire was navigated across the lesion. Subsequent balloon angioplasty with a coronary artery balloon was performed twice, followed by placement of a 4- x 12-mm coronary stent. CONCLUSION: Selective internal carotid artery angiography after stenting revealed markedly improved flow. A brain 99mTc-bicisate single-photon emission computed tomographic scan performed within 24 hours of stent placement, revealed significantly improved perfusion within the right internal carotid artery territory. Two perfusion voids suggestive of embolic stroke were noted; both were clinically silent. The patient had uncomplicated coronary artery bypass grafting 72 hours later. Five months postoperatively, he remains at home, living independently and with intact neurological function. Intracranial stenting for severe atherosclerotic stenosis is technically possible. However, its ultimate clinical role remains to be determined.
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keywords = stenosis
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20/269. Pseudo-occlusion and/or pseudo-stenosis of the intracranial internal carotid artery.

    This report summarizes our recent experience with two patients who presented with symptoms ipsilateral to a severe carotid stenosis at the bifurcation, with one having a severe stenosis at the siphon and the other an occlusion of the internal carotid artery in its intracranial portion. These lesions were documented on preoperative angiography. In both instances, persistence of symptoms, despite maximal medical therapy, led us to proceed with carotid endarterectomy. In both cases, intraoperative angiography confirmed a normal intracranial internal carotid artery, contrary to what had been seen on preoperative angiography. Carotid endarterectomy was performed, with resolution of clinical symptoms in both cases. This experience suggests that the appearance of the intracranial portion of the carotid artery can be significantly affected by the presence of a proximal lesion at the bifurcation. Stenosis and/or occlusion of the intracranial portion of the carotid artery may appear on preoperative angiography secondary to flow alterations as a result of the more proximal lesion. This, in part, may explain why many patients with combined extracranial and intracranial arterial disease improve after carotid endarterectomy and suggests that, in the presence of a severe extracranial lesion, further evaluation be undertaken to exclude the possibility of pseudo-stenosis or pseudo-occlusion of the intracranial carotid artery.
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