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1/5. Spontaneous resolution of bilateral traumatic carotid cavernous fistulas and development of trans-sellar intercarotid vascular communication: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Bilateral carotid cavernous fistulas may complicate head injury. Spontaneous resolution of post-traumatic direct carotid cavernous fistula is rare. CASE DESCRIPTION We present a case of a 42-year-old female who developed post-traumatic high flow bilateral carotid cavernous fistulas with cortical and deep venous drainage, who had a spontaneous resolution with thrombosis of the cavernous sinus outlets bilaterally and development of a trans-sellar intercarotid vascular communication. To our knowledge this is the first reported case in the literature describing such a phenomenon. CONCLUSION Bilateral direct carotid cavernous fistulas may undergo spontaneous resolution and form a benign trans-sellar intercarotid vascular communication.
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2/5. Transvenous treatment of spontaneous dural carotid-cavernous fistulas using a combination of detachable coils and Onyx.

    Three patients with spontaneous dural carotid-cavernous fistulas were treated by using a combination of detachable coils and Onyx liquid embolic agent. Cavernous sinus was accessed via the superior ophthalmic vein or inferior petrous sinus approach. In all cases, a complete angiographic closure of the fistulas was achieved with full recovery from neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms. This report suggests that the controlled and excellent penetration of Onyx is superb for blocking the intricate communication of dural carotid-cavernous fistulas.
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3/5. Return of vision after transarterial coiling of a carotid cavernous sinus fistula: case report.

    BACKGROUND: Carotid cavernous sinus fistulae are abnormal communications between the carotid circulation and cavernous sinus that may arise spontaneously or develop after craniocerebral trauma. They may present with a constellation of signs and symptoms characteristic of raised cavernous sinus pressure, including orbital or retro-orbital pain, pulsatile proptosis, chemosis, ocular or cranial bruit, deterioration of visual acuity, or ophthalmoplegia. Visual loss is likely the result of multiple insults to the visual system, including reversal of venous drainage from the fistula, arterial flow into the superior ophthalmic vein, increased intraocular venous pressure, venous stasis retinopathy, and eventually ischemic optic neuropathy [Brodsky MC, Hoyt WF, Halbach VV, et al. Recovery from total monocular blindness after balloon embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula. Am J Ophthalmol 1987;104:86-87; Sanders MD, Hoyt WF. Hypoxic ocular sequelae of carotid-cavernous fistulae: study of the causes of visual failure before and after neurosurgical treatment in a series of 25 cases. Br J Ophthalmol 1969;53:82-97]. CASE DESCRIPTION: With few exceptions, the literature is replete with evidence of persistent blindness despite successful treatment of the CCF [Albuquerque FC, Heinz GW, McDougall CG. Reversal of blindness after transvenous embolization of a carotid-cavernous fistula: case report. neurosurgery 2003;52:233-237; Brodsky MC, Hoyt WF, Halbach VV, et al. Recovery from total monocular blindness after balloon embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula. Am J Ophthalmol 1987;104:86-87; Weinstein JM, Rufenacht DA, Partington CR, et al. Delayed visual loss due to trauma of the internal carotid artery. Arch Neurol. 1991;48:490-497]. Here, we report a patient who experienced recovery of vision after endovascular obliteration of the offending CCF. DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of recovery of visual function in a patient presenting with loss of light perception after treatment of a direct CCF.
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4/5. Endovascular treatment of a direct post-traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula with electrolytically detachable coils.

    Carotid-cavernous fistulae are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and venous compartments of the cavernous sinus. Fistulae are uncommon but well-documented sequelae of craniofacial trauma. The characteristic clinical presentation includes ocular pain, chemosis, exophthalmus and visual disturbances. We report on a 28-year-old man with a history of severe craniocerebral injury, including multiple craniofacial fractures resulting from a fall from a height of approximately 6 meters, who was surgically treated one year ago. Two months before presentation, the patient began to exhibit progressive chemosis, proptosis, eyelid swelling, diplopia and exophthalmus. Computerized tomography and computerized tomographic angiography revealed findings consistent with a carotid-cavernous fistula of the right side of the cavernous sinus with dilatation of the right ocular vein. Digital subtractional angiography of the right internal carotid artery revealed a fistula between the cavernous part of the artery and the right cavernous sinus. There was only minimal blood flow in the supraclinoid part of the internal carotid artery because of the high pressure within the fistula. Our decision was to try to occlude the fistula by means of endovascular embolization. The origin of the fistula in the internal carotid artery was successfully obliterated with seven electolytically detachable coils. Control digital subtractional angiography at the end of the procedure demonstrated minimal residual flow through the fistula. Two months after the treatment, angiographic control revealed complete obliteration of the fistula. Clinical examination showed total resolution of signs and symptoms of a carotid-cavernous fistula. Endovascular transarterial embolization of carotid cavernous fistulae is a widely accepted, safe and successful treatment option. In the case that we describe we occluded the fistula and right cavernous sinus with electrolytically detachable coils that we could place into the sinus. Other endovascular treatment options include the use of detachable balloons, stent placement, transvenous embolization or surgical ligation of the fistula.
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5/5. Transvenous embolisation of a carotid-trigeminal cavernous fistula.

    A carotid cavernous fistula is an abnormal communication between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Rarely, this communication is associated with a persistent primitive trigeminal artery, with or without a trigeminal artery aneurysm. We report a case of spontaneous carotid-trigeminal cavernous fistula in which the persistent trigeminal artery was shown only on vertebral artery injection. The absence of an associated trigeminal artery aneurysm allowed a transvenous approach for endovascular treatment with coils and complete obliteration of the cavernous fistula.
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