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1/8. Mokola virus infection: description of recent South African cases and a review of the virus epidemiology.

    Five cases of Mokola virus, a lyssavirus related to rabies, are described. The cases occurred in cats from the East london, Pinetown and Pietermaritzburg areas of south africa from February 1996 to February 1998. Each of the cats was suspected of being rabid and their brains were submitted for laboratory confirmation. Four of the cases were positive, but with atypical fluorescence, and 1 was negative. Mokola virus infection was identified by anti-lyssavirus nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody typing. As in rabies cases, the predominant clinical signs were of unusual behaviour. aggression was present, but only during handling. Four of the 5 cats had been vaccinated for rabies, which is consistent with other studies that show that rabies vaccination does not appear to protect against Mokola virus. Since Mokola may be confused with rabies, the incidence of Mokola virus may be more common in Africa than is currently reported. As human infections may be fatal, the emergence of this virus is a potential threat to public health.
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ranking = 1
keywords = rabies
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2/8. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 2000.

    During 2000, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,364 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 5 cases in human beings to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention, an increase of 4.3% from 7,067 cases in nonhuman animals reported in 1999. Ninety-three percent (6,855 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.9% (509 cases) were in domestic species (compared wth 91.5% in wild animals and 8.5% in domestic species in 1999). Compared with cases reported in 1999, the number of cases reported in 2000 increased among bats, dogs, foxes, skunks, and sheep/goats and decreased among cats, cattle, horses/mules, raccoons, and swine. The relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: raccoons (37.7%; 2,778 cases), skunks (30.2%; 2,223), bats (16.8%; 1,240), foxes (6.2%; 453), cats (3.4%; 249), dogs (1.6%; 114), and cattle (1.1%; 83). Ten of the 19 states where the raccoon-associated variant of the rabies virus has been enzootic reported increases in the numbers of cases of rabies during 2000. Among those states that have engaged in extensive wildlife rabies control programs, no cases of rabies associated with the epizootic of rabies in raccoons (or in any other terrestrial species) were reported in ohio, compared with 6 cases reported in 1999. No rabies cases associated with the dog/coyote variant (compared with 10 cases in 1999, including 5 in dogs) were reported in texas, and cases associated with the gray fox variant of the virus decreased (58 cases in 2000, including 38 among foxes). Reports of rabid skunks exceeded those of rabid raccoons in massachusetts and rhode island, states with enzootic raccoon rabies, for the fourth consecutive year. Nationally, the number of rabies cases in skunks increased by 7.1% from that reported in 1999. The greatest numerical increase in rabid skunks (550 cases in 2000, compared with 192 in 1999) was reported in texas. The number of cases of rabies reported in bats (1,240) during 2000 increased 25.4% over the number reported during 1999 (989) and represented the greatest contribution (16.8% of the total number of rabid animals) ever recorded for this group of mammals. Cases of rabies reported in cattle (83) and cats (249) decreased by 38.5% and 10.4%, respectively, whereas cases in dogs (114) increased by 2.7% over those reported in 1999. Reported cases of rabies among horses and mules declined 20% from 65 cases in 1999 to 52 cases in 2000. Four indigenously acquired cases of rabies reported in human beings were caused by variants of the rabies virus associated with bats. One case of human rabies acquired outside the united states that resulted from a dog bite was caused by the canine variant of the rabies virus.
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ranking = 3.2
keywords = rabies
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3/8. Use of human immunoglobulin for treatment of severe erythema multiforme in a cat.

    A 5-month old female domestic shorthair cat developed lethargy and severe ulcerative skin lesions that covered more than half of its body after routine administration of rabies vaccine, anthelmintic, and ear medication. Clinical and histologic findings were consistent with a severe cutaneous drug reaction or erythema multiforme. The cat's condition continued to deteriorate despite drug withdrawal and supportive care. Administration of human intravenous immunoglobulin was well tolerated by the cat and led to rapid resolution of ulcerative cutaneous lesions, accompanied by substantial improvement in the cat's demeanor within 8 days. Human intravenous immunoglobulin appears to be a novel promising treatment for life-threatening cutaneous drug reactions.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = rabies
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4/8. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1990.

    In 1990, the united states and its territories reported 4,881 cases of rabies in animals to the Centers for disease Control, a 1.5% increase from 1989. Of these, 553 were domestic animals, 4,327 were wild animals, and one was a human being. pennsylvania reported the highest number (611) of rabies cases in animals in 1990. For the first time since surveillance of rabies in wild animals was begun in the 1950s, the number of cases of rabies in raccoons exceeded that in skunks. Particularly large increases of cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals were reported in new jersey (469 cases in 1990 compared with 50 cases in 1989, an increase of 838% from 1989) and new york (242 cases in 1990 compared with 54 cases in 1989, an increase of 348%). The 1,821 cases of rabies in raccoons represented a 17.9% increase over those reported in 1989 and 24.5% over those in 1988. This increase was largely attributable to the larger number of rabid raccoons in new jersey and new york. Other states that reported an increased number of rabies cases in animals in 1990 included utah (77.8%), louisiana (64.7%), north dakota (60.3%), arizona (28.6%), oklahoma (27.5%), delaware (22.2%), and maryland (20.6%). Thirty states reported a decrease in the number of cases of rabies in animals.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = rabies
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5/8. Occurrence and impact of zoonoses in pet dogs and cats at US air Force bases.

    A descriptive epidemiologic study was conducted to quantitate the occurrence of zoonoses in pet animals (almost exclusively dogs and cats) at 30 air Force bases in nine regions of the united states during 1980 and 1981. Reviews of reported cases of pet-associated zoonoses in humans at these bases were included. Occurrence of a zoonotic disease in dogs and cats was expressed as a ratio of reported cases per 100 rabies vaccinations (cs/Crv). overall, the four zoonoses reported most frequently from these pets were hookworms, roundworms, tapeworms, and fleas. Annual ratios revealed geographic variations: for example, hookworms in dogs and cats in the southeast ranged from 12.3 to 9.4 cs/Crv; in the northern Great Plains, hookworms ranged from 0.9 to 0.4 cs/Crv. dermatomycoses in the southeast ranged from 1.3 to 1.1 cs/Crv, and in alaska from 0.3 to 0.2 cs/Crv. Quarterly zoonoses occurrence revealed seasonal variations in several regions. Reports of zoonoses in people from these bases indicated that five less frequent zoonoses in dogs and cats (microsporum canis dermatomycosis, fleas, sarcoptes scabiei var canis, gram-positive bacterial infections, and rabies) presented greater acute threats to humans than did the four most frequent zoonoses reported from their pets.
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ranking = 0.4
keywords = rabies
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6/8. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1994.

    In 1994, 48 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,224 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 6 cases in human beings to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 93% (7,632 cases) were wild animals, whereas 7% (592 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 13.4% from that of 1993 (9,498 cases), with most of the decline resulting from 19.2% fewer cases of rabies in raccoons. Two previously described epizootics of rabies involving the raccoon variant of the rabies virus have converged in north carolina, and the resulting region is now continuous from alabama and florida in the South to maine in the North. Epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern texas continue to expand, with this state reporting 144 rabid foxes, 53 rabid dogs, and 77 of the 85 cases in coyotes during 1994. maine and new hampshire reported cases of rabies in foxes (6 and 9, respectively) for the first time in 10 years. Nationally, reported cases of rabies in dogs (153) increased by 17.7%, whereas cases in cattle (111) and cats (267) decreased by 14.6 and 8.3%, respectively. cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. Twenty-eight states and the district of columbia reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1994, compared with 22 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico in 1993. hawaii and nebraska were the only states that did not report cases of rabies in 1994.
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ranking = 1.8
keywords = rabies
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7/8. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1993.

    In 1993, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 9,495 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention. Greater than 93% (8,889 cases) were wild animals, whereas 6.4% (606 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases increased 9.9% over that of 1992 (8,645 cases), with most of the increase resulting from continued spread of rabies in raccoons (37.1% increase in reported cases over 1992). The 2 epizootics of rabies in raccoons (Northeastern/mid-Atlantic and Southeastern regions) approach convergence in north carolina (106 cases of rabies in 1993, compared with 49 in 1992). maine, rhode island, and vermont remained the only new england states without reported cases associated with the raccoon variant of the rabies virus. new york reported 2,747 cases of rabies, the largest number of cases ever reported during a single year by any state. Increases in reported cases of rabies in texas and 8 other geographically dispersed states were attributed mainly to larger numbers of reported cases of rabies in bats. texas reported 71 of the 74 cases in coyotes during 1993 (70 of 75 cases in 1992). Nationally, reported cases of rabies in dogs (130) and cattle (130) each decreased by 29% in 1993, whereas cats (291 cases in 1993, compared with 290 in 1992) continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. Twenty-two states and puerto rico reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1993, compared with 20 states, the District of Columbia, and puerto rico in 1992. hawaii was the only state that did not report a case of rabies in 1993.
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ranking = 2.2
keywords = rabies
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8/8. Bats, cats, and rabies in an urban community.

    Bats are the primary vectors of rabies in humans in the united states. In the urban environment they generally are found within buildings where they may bite people or be attacked by cats or dogs. Given the high probability that any bat that bites a person may be rabid, antirabies prophylaxis should be administered as soon as possible after the incident. This should not be delayed pending laboratory results on the bat. Children should be taught to avoid contact with moribund bats. cats are more likely to be involved with rabid bats than dogs, but they are less likely to be vaccinated against rabies. The occasional rabid cat in an urban community may have acquired its infection from a bat. Therefore, it is vital that communities enforce rabies vaccination for cats as well as dogs.
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ranking = 1.6
keywords = rabies
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