Cases reported "Cat-Scratch Disease"

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1/16. Unilateral neuroretinitis and periparillary serous retinal detachment in cat-scratch disease.

    cat-scratch disease is a self-limited infection characterized by subacute regional lymphadenitis, which is usually preceded by a history of being scratched by a cat infected with the Bartonella species. Neuroretinitis, retinochoroiditis, isolated papillitis and peripapillary angiomatosis are features of posterior segment involvement. However, vision loss is very rare. We report a patient with cat-scratch disease associated with unilateral neuroretinitis and peripapillary serous retinal detachment, and discuss its fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographic features.
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keywords = angiomatosis
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2/16. Multiple scattered granulomatous skin lesions in cat scratch disease.

    We report a patient with cat scratch disease who presented with multiple scattered nodular lesions on the legs. Examination of skin biopsy specimens revealed a granulomatous pattern. In our opinion, this is a previously undescribed secondary cutaneous reaction of cat scratch disease. The pathogenesis of this reaction is unclear but some data suggest that the eruption might be caused by a hematogenous spread of cat scratch disease bacteria to the skin. Pathogenetic relationships with so-called bacillary angiomatosis, recently described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, are reviewed here.
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keywords = angiomatosis
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3/16. Disseminated Bartonella infection following liver transplantation.

    bartonella henselae has not only been identified as the causative agent of cat scratch disease, but it is also associated with other significant infectious syndromes in the immunocompromised population. We describe two cases of B. henselae associated diseases in liver transplant recipients who both had contact with cats. The first recipient developed localized skin manifestation of bacillary angiomatosis in association with granulomatous hepatitis. He tested positive for immunoglobulin g (IgG) antibodies against B. henselae. The second patient developed axillary lymphadenopathy, with biopsy showing necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and polymerase chain reaction studies were positive for B. henselae dna. Her serology for bartonellosis showed a fourfold rise in antibody titers during her hospitalization. Both patients responded to treatment with azithromycin in combination with doxycycline. These were the only cases within a series of 467 consecutive liver transplants performed in 402 patients performed during a 4-year period. Although bartonellosis is a rare infection in liver transplantation recipients, it should always be included in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with fever, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms, skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, and hepatitis especially if prior contact with cats is reported.
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ranking = 1
keywords = angiomatosis
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4/16. Clinical, histologic, microbiologic, and biochemical characterization of the causative agent of bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis: a rickettsial illness with features of bartonellosis.

    It has been suggested that bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis (BEA) is a manifestation of cat scratch disease (CSD). Because of clinical similarity between this condition and the verruga peruana phase of bartonellosis, we sought to further characterize this disease as well as its causative agent and to compare it to bartonellosis. We isolated a small flagellated pleomorphic bacillus from skin lesions of two patients with BEA. Organisms were stained successfully with Warthin-Starry silver stains, but immunohistochemistry failed to demonstrate binding with a polyclonal antibody directed against the cat scratch bacillus. Whole cell fatty-acid gas chromatography performed on both BEA organisms and bartonella bacilliformis demonstrated marked similarity between the two. Electron microscopy of BEA organisms in tissue and in suspension revealed features characteristic of a gram negative bacillus. Based on these findings, we propose that this unusual rickettsial infectious disease with vascular proliferation may represent an unusual variant of infection with a bartonella-like organism rather than a manifestation of cat scratch disease.
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ranking = 5
keywords = angiomatosis
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5/16. Epithelioid angiomatosis or cat scratch disease with splenic and hepatic abnormalities in AIDS: case report and review of the literature.

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) in the setting of HIV infection is associated with lesions of epithelioid angiomatosis but not with granulomatous lesions seen in the normal host. We report a case of CSD in a patient with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma with epithelioid angioma of skin, thrombocytopenia, and abnormalities of liver, spleen, lymph node, and pleura that responded to antimicrobial therapy. We also review reported cases of epithelioid angiomatosis in hiv infections. 12 of these resolved, including 3 without antimicrobial therapy; 18 demonstrated pleomorphic organisms with Warthin-Starry silver stain. Six involved visceral or bony as well as skin lesions. CSD should be considered in the setting of HIV infection with skin nodules even in the presence of biopsy-proven Kaposi's sarcoma. CSD may in these patients be responsible for a variety of disseminated lesions which respond to antimicrobial therapy.
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ranking = 6
keywords = angiomatosis
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6/16. The agent of bacillary angiomatosis. An approach to the identification of uncultured pathogens.

    BACKGROUND. Bacillary angiomatosis is an infectious disease causing proliferation of small blood vessels in the skin and visceral organs of patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other immunocompromised hosts. The agent is often visualized in tissue sections of lesions with Warthin-Starry staining, but the bacillus has not been successfully cultured or identified. This bacillus may also cause cat scratch disease. methods. In attempting to identify this organism, we used the polymerase chain reaction. We used oligonucleotide primers complementary to the 16S ribosomal rna genes of eubacteria to amplify 16S ribosomal gene fragments directly from tissue samples of bacillary angiomatosis. The dna sequence of these fragments was determined and analyzed for phylogenetic relatedness to other known organisms. Normal tissues were studied in parallel. RESULTS. Tissue from three unrelated patients with bacillary angiomatosis yielded a unique 16S gene sequence. A sequence obtained from a fourth patient with bacillary angiomatosis differed from the sequence found in the other three patients at only 4 of 241 base positions. No related 16S gene fragment was detected in the normal tissues. These 16S sequences associated with bacillary angiomatosis belong to a previously uncharacterized microorganism, most closely related to Rochalimaea quintana. CONCLUSIONS. The cause of bacillary angiomatosis is a previously uncharacterized rickettsia-like organism, closely related to R. quintana. This method for the identification of an uncultured pathogen may be applicable to other infectious diseases of unknown cause.
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ranking = 10
keywords = angiomatosis
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7/16. Visceral bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis: possible manifestations of disseminated cat scratch disease in the immunocompromised host: a report of two cases.

    Opportunistic infection with the causative agent of cat scratch disease may be responsible for an unusual vascular proliferative lesion, referred to as bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis, previously described only in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We present a case of an HIV-infected patient with bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis involving the liver and bone marrow causing progressive hepatic failure. We also report a case of a cardiac transplant recipient with hepatic and splenic bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis manifesting as a fever of unknown origin, a previously unreported event in a non-HIV-infected patient. These cases represent the first documentation of bacillary epithelioid angiomatosis with visualization of cat scratch-like organisms involving internal organs.
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ranking = 8
keywords = angiomatosis
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8/16. Disseminated cat-scratch disease in a patient with AIDS.

    A patient with AIDS developed subcutaneous nodules and associated osteolytic lesions with negative stains and cultures for bacteria, fungi and parasites. Flucloxacillin was not effective but treatment with vancomycin was associated with improvement. Six months later the patient became severely ill, with fever, malaise and multiple skin and laryngeal papules. cat-scratch disease was diagnosed from the typical epithelioid angiomatosis seen in skin biopsies with bacterium-like structures in the Warthin-Starry stain. Retrospectively these typical structures were also seen in earlier biopsies. All lesions improved after therapy with erythromycin had been instituted.
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ranking = 1
keywords = angiomatosis
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9/16. Infection-associated vascular lesions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.

    Several reports have recently appeared in the literature describing "unique" non-neoplastic vascular lesions in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These lesions may be mistaken clinically and histologically for Kaposi's sarcoma. The terms epithelioid angiomatosis, epithelioid or histiocytoid hemangioma, and pyogenic granuloma have all been used to describe a similar entity in which cat scratch disease bacillus (CSDB) was subsequently identified. Lesions closely resembling this entity occur in patients with bartonellosis. We report a case of a cutaneous vascular lesion on the hand of an AIDS patient in which cytomegalovirus (CMV) and organisms consistent with CSDB were both found. Simultaneous infections with CMV and CSDB have not been previously described. The presence of these organisms in and around endothelial cells may provide the common stimulus for the formation of these reactive vascular proliferations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = angiomatosis
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10/16. Bacillary angiomatosis in a patient with lymphocytic leukaemia.

    A 78-year-old man, who suffered from chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and diabetes mellitus, but was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, developed disseminated angiomatous papules following a cat scratch. Bacillary angiomatosis was diagnosed by light and electron microscopic demonstration of the causative bacteria in the vascular lesions. The lesions resolved completely when he was treated with erythromycin. This case demonstrates that bacillary angiomatosis can be an important cutaneous manifestation of immunodeficiency in individuals who are not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.
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ranking = 6
keywords = angiomatosis
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