Cases reported "Catastrophic Illness"

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1/28. Catastrophic arterial reactivity during primary antiphospholipid syndrome--a case report.

    Arterial reactivity leading to acute thrombosis at the site of a needle stick injury has never been described during antiphospholipid syndrome. The authors report a case characterized by a succession of thrombotic events occurring during or immediately after arterial angiographies or arterial surgery, in which catastrophic arterial reactivity can be strongly suspected. In this particular patient, it can be postulated that damage to the endothelial cells of the vessels injured during manipulation may have precipitated or aggravated the preexisting susceptibility to thrombosis. ( info)

2/28. Catastrophic manifestation of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

    We describe a young woman who displayed the "malignant" variant of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), also known as the "catastrophic APS." renal insufficiency, retinopathy, cerebral infarcts, bone marrow necrosis, skin ulcers, and nasal septum perforation were the result of widespread thrombotic microangiopathy. She recovered during high intensity anticoagulation. ( info)

3/28. Involvement of the entire spinal cord and medulla oblongata in acute catastrophic-onset transverse myelitis in SLE.

    A 30-year-old Caucasian male with systemic lupus erythematosus suffered acute catastrophic-onset transverse myelitis. Two years earlier aseptic meningitis, another rare CNS lupus manifestation, had been diagnosed. MRI showed involvement of the medulla oblongata and the entire spinal cord. Therapy with intravenous high-dose methylprednisolone and intravenous cyclophosphamide is discussed. ( info)

4/28. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome associated with crescentic glomerulonephritis: a clinicopathologic case.

    The association of renal failure with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome has been reported in the context of microvascular occlusions and/or malignant hypertension. We describe a 36-year-old woman who died of multiorgan failure with the laboratory, clinical and histopathological characteristics of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome associated with a crescentic glomerulonephritis and renal failure. ( info)

5/28. When the care giver needs care.

    Case studies are used to illustrate family dysfunction that can occur when the wife and/or mother who has assumed the role of primary care giver is diagnosed and treated for cancer. These women were treated by the liaison psychiatrist and social workers at a large cancer center. The cases are discussed from a framework of family systems theory. Treatment implications for social workers in health care are also presented. ( info)

6/28. An unusual presentation of ascending aortic arch dissection.

    The following case report is that of a young man who collapsed on a golf course during a heat advisory. The prehospital presentation suggested that the patient was suffering from heat exhaustion. In the Emergency Department, the patient's condition continued to deteriorate despite aggressive rehydration and cooling efforts. Aggressive evaluation and treatment of the patient led to the diagnosis of an acute painless dissection of the ascending aorta. ( info)

7/28. Catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus: an autopsy case report of a young woman.

    Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) is a severe variant of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) characterized by disseminated microangiopathy that results in multiorgan failure. CAPS mainly occurs in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Clinically, CAPS mimics disseminated SLE vasculitis, intravascular coagulation (DIC), and particularly thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). We describe an autopsy case of young woman with CAPS in SLE, which is difficult to differentiate from TTP secondary to SLE. ( info)

8/28. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: remission following leg amputation in 2 cases.

    OBJECTIVE: The antiphospholipid syndrome is characterized by venous and arterial thrombotic events that are often recurrent, thrombocytopenia, recurrent fetal loss, and elevated titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. A subtype of patients with a particularly overwhelming clinical picture has been termed catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS). In this report, we present 2 patients who exhibited a similar multisystem disorder associated with gangrenous changes in the lower extremities. methods: Two patients with CAPS are presented, highlighting the impact of this disorder on the patients and the response to various therapeutic modalities. RESULTS: Both patients had pulmonary, cardiac, cutaneous, and neurologic findings consistent with CAPS. In addition, they had large purulent leg ulcers associated with livedo reticularis. amputation of the legs in each case induced remission of the systemic illness. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that infection plays a significant role in the pathogenesis and amplification of the antiphospholipid syndrome. In certain patients, this association probably is mediated via immune mechanisms, which also enhance the genesis of atherosclerosis. After the foci of infection (suppurative leg ulcers) were removed, the underlying illness improved. These case studies provide an opportunity to study the interrelationship between several confounding factors that converge and lead to the development of this autoimmune condition. ( info)

9/28. bone marrow necrosis and refractory hellp syndrome in a patient with catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    We describe a 22-year-old woman who developed extensive and fatal bone marrow necrosis along with involvement of liver, lung, and central nervous system during pregnancy in the background of very high titers of antiphospholipid and anti-beta2 glycoprotein antibodies. This case illustrates a rarely recognized, potentially fatal complication of aPL in the setting of pregnancy. ( info)

10/28. Treatment of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome with defibrotide, a proposed vascular endothelial cell modulator.

    OBJECTIVE: To define at the molecular level the vascular endothelial cell (VEC) injury characteristics of catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) and to report successful therapeutic use of a VEC modulator, defibrotide. methods: We describe a 55-year-old man with primary APS with an intractable prothrombotic state (CAPS) resistant to combined therapy with heparin, warfarin, aspirin, and dipyridamole. Treatment with defibrotide was conducted in the context of an investigational phase II protocol where the dose was regulated and individualized by disease/patient-specific molecular and clinical markers. RESULTS: The patient entered complete remission with defibrotide treatment. During treatment, dose dependent pharmacological actions of defibrotide and key stress markers for VEC injury were identified. Evidence of defibrotide's polypharmacology included downregulation of cytokines, notably tumor necrosis factor-alpha, as the earliest effect, cellular differentiation of VEC, possibly with direct regulatory effect over cellular genes, and the reversal of platelet consumption and prothrombotic state. Von Willebrand antigen levels were used as the sole marker to guide therapy. CONCLUSION: This case demonstrates effective remission of CAPS with defibrotide treatment. In contrast to theories that CAPS is triggered by ischemic and thrombotic tissue damage, these data present VEC injury as the primary and representative lesion of CAPS. The pathogenesis may involve concurrent impairment of different VEC functions. Achieving remission may require a polypharmacologic approach, represented here by use of defibrotide. ( info)
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