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1/3. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 2000.

    During 2000, 49 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 7,364 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 5 cases in human beings to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention, an increase of 4.3% from 7,067 cases in nonhuman animals reported in 1999. Ninety-three percent (6,855 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.9% (509 cases) were in domestic species (compared wth 91.5% in wild animals and 8.5% in domestic species in 1999). Compared with cases reported in 1999, the number of cases reported in 2000 increased among bats, dogs, foxes, skunks, and sheep/goats and decreased among cats, cattle, horses/mules, raccoons, and swine. The relative contributions of the major groups of animals were as follows: raccoons (37.7%; 2,778 cases), skunks (30.2%; 2,223), bats (16.8%; 1,240), foxes (6.2%; 453), cats (3.4%; 249), dogs (1.6%; 114), and cattle (1.1%; 83). Ten of the 19 states where the raccoon-associated variant of the rabies virus has been enzootic reported increases in the numbers of cases of rabies during 2000. Among those states that have engaged in extensive wildlife rabies control programs, no cases of rabies associated with the epizootic of rabies in raccoons (or in any other terrestrial species) were reported in ohio, compared with 6 cases reported in 1999. No rabies cases associated with the dog/coyote variant (compared with 10 cases in 1999, including 5 in dogs) were reported in texas, and cases associated with the gray fox variant of the virus decreased (58 cases in 2000, including 38 among foxes). Reports of rabid skunks exceeded those of rabid raccoons in massachusetts and rhode island, states with enzootic raccoon rabies, for the fourth consecutive year. Nationally, the number of rabies cases in skunks increased by 7.1% from that reported in 1999. The greatest numerical increase in rabid skunks (550 cases in 2000, compared with 192 in 1999) was reported in texas. The number of cases of rabies reported in bats (1,240) during 2000 increased 25.4% over the number reported during 1999 (989) and represented the greatest contribution (16.8% of the total number of rabid animals) ever recorded for this group of mammals. Cases of rabies reported in cattle (83) and cats (249) decreased by 38.5% and 10.4%, respectively, whereas cases in dogs (114) increased by 2.7% over those reported in 1999. Reported cases of rabies among horses and mules declined 20% from 65 cases in 1999 to 52 cases in 2000. Four indigenously acquired cases of rabies reported in human beings were caused by variants of the rabies virus associated with bats. One case of human rabies acquired outside the united states that resulted from a dog bite was caused by the canine variant of the rabies virus.
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2/3. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1990.

    In 1990, the united states and its territories reported 4,881 cases of rabies in animals to the Centers for disease Control, a 1.5% increase from 1989. Of these, 553 were domestic animals, 4,327 were wild animals, and one was a human being. pennsylvania reported the highest number (611) of rabies cases in animals in 1990. For the first time since surveillance of rabies in wild animals was begun in the 1950s, the number of cases of rabies in raccoons exceeded that in skunks. Particularly large increases of cases of rabies in wild and domestic animals were reported in new jersey (469 cases in 1990 compared with 50 cases in 1989, an increase of 838% from 1989) and new york (242 cases in 1990 compared with 54 cases in 1989, an increase of 348%). The 1,821 cases of rabies in raccoons represented a 17.9% increase over those reported in 1989 and 24.5% over those in 1988. This increase was largely attributable to the larger number of rabid raccoons in new jersey and new york. Other states that reported an increased number of rabies cases in animals in 1990 included utah (77.8%), louisiana (64.7%), north dakota (60.3%), arizona (28.6%), oklahoma (27.5%), delaware (22.2%), and maryland (20.6%). Thirty states reported a decrease in the number of cases of rabies in animals.
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3/3. Rabies surveillance in the united states during 1994.

    In 1994, 48 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico reported 8,224 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 6 cases in human beings to the Centers for disease Control and Prevention. Nearly 93% (7,632 cases) were wild animals, whereas 7% (592 cases) were domestic species. The total number of reported cases decreased 13.4% from that of 1993 (9,498 cases), with most of the decline resulting from 19.2% fewer cases of rabies in raccoons. Two previously described epizootics of rabies involving the raccoon variant of the rabies virus have converged in north carolina, and the resulting region is now continuous from alabama and florida in the South to maine in the North. Epizootics of rabies in foxes in west central texas and in dogs and coyotes in southern texas continue to expand, with this state reporting 144 rabid foxes, 53 rabid dogs, and 77 of the 85 cases in coyotes during 1994. maine and new hampshire reported cases of rabies in foxes (6 and 9, respectively) for the first time in 10 years. Nationally, reported cases of rabies in dogs (153) increased by 17.7%, whereas cases in cattle (111) and cats (267) decreased by 14.6 and 8.3%, respectively. cats continued to be the domestic animal most frequently reported rabid. Twenty-eight states and the district of columbia reported decreases in rabies in animals in 1994, compared with 22 states, the district of columbia, and puerto rico in 1993. hawaii and nebraska were the only states that did not report cases of rabies in 1994.
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