Cases reported "Cattle Diseases"

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1/2. A common-source outbreak of Crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever on a dairy farm.

    An outbreak of Crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) on a dairy farm in the Orange Free State in 1984 is described. Forty-six cows were purchased from the western Cape Province in January 1984; 2 died from the tick-borne disease anaplasmosis in March and a labourer who helped butcher the carcasses became ill a few days later. Another cow died at the end of April and within 9 days 4 people who had come into contact with its blood became ill. antibodies to CCHF virus were found in the sera of the 5 patients but not in other residents of the farm. Three patients recovered from a severe influenza-like illness without seeking medical attention; 1 patient, who was admitted to hospital, recovered from illness marked by haematemesis, epistaxis and amnesia and the 5th patient died of complications of surgery for brain haemorrhage. Antibody studies indicated that many of the cows became infected with CCHF after their arrival on the farm. It can be deduced that animals reared in tick-free, or relatively tick-free, circumstances, which are then moved to where they are subject to heavy parasitization by ticks, can acquire common tick-borne diseases of livestock plus CCHF infection simultaneously. In such circumstances there is a definite risk of human exposure to CCHF-infected blood or other tissues.
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2/2. Crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus infection in the western province of saudi arabia.

    In 1990, an outbreak of suspected viral haemorrhagic fever involving 7 individuals occurred in Mecca in the Western Province of saudi arabia. congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever (CCHF), not previously known to be present in saudi arabia, was incriminated. A study of the epidemiology of this virus was therefore carried out in Mecca, and in nearby Jeddah and Taif in 1991-1993; 13 species of ixodid ticks (5 Hyalomma spp., 5 rhipicephalus spp., 2 Amblyomma spp., 1 Boophilus sp.) were collected from livestock (camels, cattle, sheep, goats), and of these 10 were capable of transmitting CCHF. camels had the highest rate of tick infestation (97%), and H. dromedarii was the commonest tick (70%). Attempts to isolate virus from pools of H. dromedarii and H. anatolicum anatolicum were unsuccessful. The source of infection in 3 confirmed cases of CCHF was contact with fresh mutton and, in a suspected case, slaughtering sheep. An investigation in Mecca, which included a serological survey of abattoir workers, identified 40 human cases of confirmed or suspected CCHF between 1989 and 1990, with 12 fatalities. Significant risk factors included exposure to animal blood or tissue in abattoirs, but not tick bites. It is suspected that the CCHF virus may have been introduced to saudi arabia by infected ticks on imported sheep arriving at Jeddah seaport, and that it is now endemic in the Western Province.
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