Cases reported "Causalgia"

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1/60. Augmentative treatment of chronic deafferentation pain syndromes after peripheral nerve lesions.

    Deafferentation pain syndromes developing after peripheral nerve lesions are difficult to treat. According to the follow-up (mean: 39.5 months) of 6 patients suffering from causalgic pain we will present our method of augmentative therapy in chronic neuropathic pain caused by peripheral nerve lesions, i.e., peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS), spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and chronic intrathecal opioid infusion. None of the patients showed intraoperative or follow-up complications. Evaluated by visual analogue scales all patients reported a good to excellent pain relief (75-100%). (1) Regarding the favourable long-term results of PNS, this method should be considered in cases of mononeuropathic pain syndromes. (2) Neuropathic pain syndromes which are not assignable to a singular nerve lesion, can often be managed effectively by SCS. (3) In contrast to the widespread opinion, deafferentation pain syndromes of central or peripheral origin can be treated satisfactorily by intrathecal opiate administration. ( info)

2/60. Abdominoinguinal pain syndrome treated by centrocentral anastomosis.

    During operations in the lower part of the abdomen injuries to nerves located here arise in 1-4,2 per cent; the most frequently iliohypogastric, ilioinguinal, genitofemoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves. These injuries to nerves are often very painful and till to day very difficult to treat. Clinical terminology of their injuries is variable and not strict. Therefore we suggest an all embracing term "abdominoinguinal pain syndrome". The authors present four case reports, in whom centrocentral anastomosis with use of both autologous interposed segment of nerve and also without it, achieved successful treatment of chronic pain. On the basis of this experience the authors prefer centrocentral anastomosis without autologous interposed segment of nerve, which is technicaly more simple. ( info)

3/60. Increased sodium channel SNS/PN3 immunoreactivity in a causalgic finger.

    The sodium channels SNS/PN3 and NaN/SNS2 are regulated by the neurotrophic factors-nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and may play an important role in the development of pain after nerve injury or inflammation. These key molecules have been studied in an amputated causalgic finger and control tissues by immunohistochemistry. There was a marked increase in the number and intensity of SNS/PN3-immunoreactive nerve terminals in the affected finger, while GDNF-immunoreactivity was not observed, in contrast to controls. No differences were observed for NGF, trk A, NT-3 or NaN/SNS2-immunoreactivity. While further studies are required, these findings suggest that accumulation of SNS/PN3 and/or loss of GDNF may contribute to pain in causalgia, and that selective blockers of SNS/PN3 and/or rhGDNF may provide effective novel treatments. ( info)

4/60. Management of post-traumatic pain syndromes (causalgia).

    A number of post-traumatic pain syndromes may be grouped under the two headings: causalgia and mimocausalgia states. Our concern is the early recognition of patients whose complaints have a real organic basis but whose physical signs are not of sufficient degree to make this fact readily apparent. These patients are all too often mismanaged or neglected for sufficiently long periods of time to permit the underlying pathologic physiology to secure supremacy over normal function. Recognized and treated properly by means of sympathetic ablation, either medical or surgical, the vast majority can be relieved of their symptoms. The extremities can then be rehabilitated by appropriate measures. ( info)

5/60. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy in causalgia.

    causalgia, the post-traumatic pain syndrome remains one of the most poorly understood and frequently misdiagnosed entities encountered in clinical practice. Ablation of the upper thoracic sympathetic trunk has been used for over a century with variable success for a variety of conditions. Endoscopic transthoracic techniques of ablation of the sympathetic trunk have the advantage of a minimally invasive approach with excellent visualization of the sympathetic trunk and rapid postoperative recovery. We discuss a case of causalgia in a 35 years old man with 15 years duration of symptoms (stage 2 Drucker) in whom nonoperative therapy has consisted of drug therapy (phenytion, amitriptyline, carbamazepine, beclofen, ibuprofen and diclofenac Na), intermittent sympathetic blocks and physiotherapy failed, but full degree of pain relief was achieved by thoracic T2-T3 sympathectomy endoscopically without any major complication. Endoscopic transthoracic techniques for sympathectomy are a major technical advance in the management of causalgia and pancreatic pain. The operation is safe, effective and well tolerated and leads to a high level of patient satisfaction. Further applications of this technique are inevitable and are likely to replace conventional open procedures. ( info)

6/60. Complex regional pain syndrome in pediatric patients with severe factor viii deficiency.

    Two boys with severe factor viii deficiency that initially presented with acute onset of joint pain and swelling consistent with an uncomplicated hemarthrosis are reported. When appropriate management failed to provide resolution of symptoms, alternate diagnoses were considered. Both boys ultimately had complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) diagnosed. The delay in diagnosis contributed to prolonged patient discomfort and lack of appropriate therapy. Complex regional pain syndrome encompasses a group of disorders that are characterized by pain severity or duration disproportionate to that expected. It is uncommon in the pediatric population. Because early diagnosis and appropriate treatment may improve outcome, it is important for practitioners to consider CRPS in the differential diagnosis of persistent pain in children with hemophilia. ( info)

7/60. Complex regional pain syndrome after thromboendarterectomy: which type is it?

    The authors describe a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and discuss its type according to the presence or absence of nerve injury. A patient underwent thromboendarterectomy of the right popliteal artery. Subsequently, right lower limb reflex sympathetic dystrophy developed, which was confirmed by scintigraphy and responded well to calcitonin treatment. Typing according to the new classification of CRPS type I or II with possible nerve injury is discussed, and a short review of the literature is included. ( info)

8/60. Severe complex regional pain syndrome type II after radial artery harvesting.

    The radial artery is increasingly used as a coronary bypass graft. We report on a patient who developed a severe complex regional pain syndrome type II--also called causalgia--after radial artery harvesting. After an odyssey of diagnostic and presumed therapeutic procedures, she underwent surgical revision of the left forearm. Intraoperatively, a titanium clip in close neighborhood to the superficial radial nerve affecting the perineurium was found and removed, and more distally, a small neurinoma (3 by 4 mm) was resected. Despite presumed successful operation, symptoms did not improve. The patient presumably remains unable to use her left arm and hand. ( info)

9/60. motor cortex stimulation in a patient with intractable complex regional pain syndrome type II with hemibody involvement. Case report.

    The authors describe the effectiveness of motor cortex stimulation (MCS) in a patient with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) Type II, formerly known as causalgia, with hemibody allodynia. During MCS, a subjective sensation of warm paresthesia developed in the painful hand and forearm and spread toward the trunk. Pain and allodynia in the areas associated with this sensation were alleviated significantly. The analgesic effect of stimulation proved to be long lasting and was still present at the 12-month follow up. The authors speculate that MCS might exert its effect through the modulation of thalamic activity in this particular case of CRPS with hemisensory deficit. A central mechanism associated with functional disturbance in noxious-event processing in the thalamus might have an important role in the pathogenesis of the condition. ( info)

10/60. Reference fields in phantom tooth pain as a marker for remapping in the facial territory.

    Six patients with chronic phantom tooth pain were studied for the presence of reference fields for their phantom sensation. In five of them, pain or dysesthesia in the affected oral structures was elicited by thermal or mechanical stimulation of areas that were well separate from these structures. However, a relation of topographical proximity between the stimulated areas and the areas of reference could be traced in the sensory maps. Therefore, denervation of small structures with coarse sensitivity can yield the plastic changes that have previously been described for larger deafferentations of areas endowed with finer discriminative capacity. ( info)
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