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11/1382. Identification of the t(15;17) in AML FAB types other than M3: evaluation of the role of molecular screening for the PML/RARalpha rearrangement in newly diagnosed AML. The Medical research Council (MRC) Adult Leukaemia Working Party.

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is characterized by the t(15;17) leading to the formation of PML-RARalpha and RARalpha-PML fusion genes; this rearrangement has been considered both diagnostic for, and restricted to, this subtype of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML FAB M3). We describe two cases of AML with the t(15;17) associated with a PML/RARalpha rearrangement which lacked typical APL morphology, classified as FAB M1 and M2 respectively. In both cases morphological review revealed small populations of cells which exhibited some features associated with APL. In the case classified as M1, PML immunofluorescence studies revealed the classic microparticulate nuclear staining pattern as observed in typical cases of APL with the t(15;17). Similarly, blasts from this case were found to be sensitive to ATRA in vitro as determined by NBT reduction test and by normalization of the PML nuclear body staining pattern. To determine the frequency of PML/RARalpha rearrangements in FAB subtypes other than M3, 530 patients from the MRC AML trials were screened using nested RT-PCR. Only one individual, initially classified as M5 with a normal karyotype, was found to have a PML/RARalpha rearrangement. The diagnosis was revised to M3 variant on subsequent morphological review. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, in rare cases, the t(15;17) is not restricted to patients with M3 morphology as defined by current FAB criteria. Therefore, although we consider cytogenetic analysis of newly diagnosed cases of AML to be mandatory, our data suggests that routine molecular screening for PML/RARalpha rearrangements is not justified and should be reserved for those cases displaying features which may be suspicious of APL even if such cells comprise only a minority of the total population.
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12/1382. Familial occurrence of chronic neutrophilic leukaemia.

    A father and son who both developed chronic neutrophilic leukaemia (CNL) are reported. The father, aged 63, had been exposed to radioactive fallout after the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima; he presented with hepatosplenomegaly and neutrophilic leucocytosis, and died of intracerebral haemorrhage 1 month after diagnosis. 4 years later his son, then aged 44, presented with neutrophilic leucocytosis. Leukaemic transformation to acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML-M1) occurred, and he died of refractory leukaemia 4 months after the diagnosis of CNL. This is the first report of this rare disease occurring in family members; genetic effect due to radioactive poisoning was suspected in the development of CNL in these two cases.
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13/1382. Two case studies of chronic idiopathic neutropenia preceding acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Chronic idiopathic neutropenia is regarded as a benign disorder without risk of malignant transformation. We present two patients with chronic idiopathic neutropenia who showed disease progression to acute myeloid leukaemia. sequence analysis of the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR) gene from leukaemic DNA did not reveal any mutations and microsatellite analysis provided no evidence of microsatellite instability or loss of constitutional heterozygosity. These case studies suggest that chronic idiopathic neutropenia may constitute a preleukaemic condition in some patients. Alterations of the G-CSFR or defective dna mismatch repair do not appear to be involved in malignant transformation.
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14/1382. Combined modality treatment for malignant transformation of a benign ovarian teratoma.

    Malignant transformation of a mature teratoma is a rare event. patients often remain free of symptoms until the tumor burden makes the prognosis poor, due to pelvic and peritoneal metastases. We present a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from a teratoma, with bowel and peritoneal invasion. The patient was treated by radical surgery followed by whole pelvic radiation and chemotherapy. This regimen, usually given for squamous cell tumors, such as cervical cancer, led to a 19-month persistent disease-free survival.
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15/1382. A poroid neoplasia arising close to a seborrheic keratosis and a trichoepithelioma.

    A 69-year-old woman had a well-defined, slightly raised, brownish, keratotic plaque with an eccentric group of roughly circular, bluish, dome nodules on her right scapular area. Histological study revealed the presence of an eccrine poroma demonstrating features of eccrine poroma, hidroacanthoma simplex, and dermal duct tumor and arising in a lesion of seborrheic keratosis and a trichoepithelioma. In the eccrine poroma region, an area with malignant changes was evident. The findings in this case support the view of eccrine poroma as a spectrum of histological variants and the possibility of malignant transformation from a eccrine poroma towards porocarcinoma. The association with seborrheic keratosis is most probably coincidental, and the trichoepithelioma was probably due to induction of the tumoral stroma on adjacent follicular epithelia.
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16/1382. Malignant glial tumor arising from the site of a previous hamartoma/ganglioglioma: coincidence or malignant transformation?

    Gangliogliomas are generally considered benign tumors. Although more commonly found in the brain, spinal cord ganglioglioma is a well established, albeit infrequent, entity. We describe a 2-decade clinical course of a patient initially diagnosed with a thoracolumbar 'glial-neuronal hamartoma' at age 4. Seventeen years after his first operation, local recurrence was noted. Despite subsequent multiple gross total resections and adjuvant therapy, histologic features became increasingly ominous and ultimately proved fatal. This is an unusual report and histologic presentation of a resected spinal cord ganglioglioma recurring as an anaplastic ependymoma/astrocytoma and subsequently a glioblastoma. It is quite likely that the originally resected ganglioglioma was actually part of a primitive neuroectodermal tumor which had undergone extensive maturation.
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17/1382. Tc-99m DTPA used as reference imaging to evaluate the distribution of other tumor-seeking tracers in tumors associated with neurofibromatosis.

    Two patients with multiple benign and malignant tumors associated with neurofibromatosis underwent radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DTPA, Tl-201, and Ga-67. In these patients, Tc-99m DTPA accumulated intensively in both the benign and malignant tumors and localized and defined the extent of every tumor. In contrast, Ga-67 and Tl-201 uptake was seen only in focal areas of tumor where there was malignant transformation or at sites that showed progressive tumor growth. Tc-99m DTPA imaging accurately demonstrated areas of neoplastic involvement and identified the areas that would be seen with the other two tracers in individual tumors. Tc-99m DTPA may not always be used for the differential diagnosis of malignant and benign tumors of neurofibromatosis, but it can provide a reference pattern for imaging to evaluate accurately the distribution of Tl-201 and Ga-67 by mapping out the anatomic extent of these tumors.
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18/1382. Pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa and acute pancreatitis: a rare presentation of choledochal cyst.

    Pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosa is an unusual cause of death in a young adult. This case describes an apparently healthy young woman who presented with severe acute pancreatitis, which is a recognized complication of a choledochal cyst. autopsy examination revealed advanced malignancy with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma penetrating the wall of the choledochal cyst and metastatic adenocarcinoma in the lymph nodes, lungs and kidneys. This case emphasises the unusual presentation of a choledochal cyst with acute pancreatitis and the aggressive nature of malignancy associated with this congenital anomaly.
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19/1382. Malignant transformation of an optic disk melanocytoma.

    PURPOSE: To report a case of malignant transformation of an optic disk melanocytoma with a second melanocytoma in the ciliary body. methods: Clinical data including visual acuity, visual fields, color fundus photographs, fluorescein angiogram, and ultrasonogram and histopathologic studies of this case were reviewed. RESULTS: The right eye of a 65-year-old white woman was diagnosed with melanocytoma of the optic nerve. Four years later, the tumor became significantly larger. The best-corrected visual acuity declined from 20/40 to counting fingers and the size of the tumor increased fourfold in 2 years. The right globe was enucleated. Histopathologic studies demonstrated moderately pigmented spindle-B malignant melanoma cells adjacent to and within a population of large, polyhedral, heavily pigmented melanocytoma cells that extended to the lamina cribrosa and optic nerve. There was also a deeply pigmented melanocytoma in the ciliary body. CONCLUSION: This is a rare case of malignant melanoma transformed from an optic disk melanocytoma. Periodic follow-up of the patient with optic disk melanocytoma is necessary.
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20/1382. Melanin pigmented oncocytic metaplasia of the nasopharynx.

    A 64-year-old man presented with a history of discomfort of the throat of a few weeks' duration. Nasoscopic examination revealed multiple small, brown pigmentations at the left suprapharynx, the base of the left nasal cavity and the pharyngeal openings of the auditory tube on both sides. Microscopically, the lesion showed a glandular pattern of oncocytic epithelium with abundant pigmented granules and melanophages in the surrounding stroma. Immunohistochemically, the dendritic cells in the basal layer were positive for S-100 protein. Electron microscopic study revealed numerous fully melanized melanosomes and hypertrophied mitochondria in the oncocytic cells. Oncocytic cells do not produce melanin for themselves, melanin granules apparently being transferred from the adjacent dendritic cells to the oncocytic cells.
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