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1/16. adenocarcinoma in a mid-esophageal diverticulum.

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has been increasing compared with squamous cell carcinoma. The most common location of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus is the distal one third. Cancer developing in an esophageal diverticulum is uncommon, but tumors of squamous cell origin in esophageal diverticula have been reported previously. We describe an adenocarcinoma in a midesophageal diverticulum and review malignancies occurring in esophageal diverticula.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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2/16. Superficial undifferentiated small cell carcinoma of the esophagus showing an interesting growing pattern in histology.

    We report a case of superficial undifferentiated small cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The histology of the tumor was interesting; there was squamous cell differentiation within the epithelial layer and undifferentiated small cells growing within the submucosal layer. The tumor had a negative Grimelius reaction, suggesting no differentiation into a hormone-producing carcinoma known as an apudoma (Amine Precursor Uptake and decarboxylation (APUD)). The serum levels of ACTH and calcitonin were within normal limits. As the patient was elderly and had a history of pleural tuberculosis causing poor pulmonary function, and owing to the fulminant nature of this carcinoma, he underwent blunt dissection of the esophagus by posterior mediastinal gastric pull-up. The patient recovered quickly and was able to be discharged with a good quality of life until the tumor recurred as a liver metastasis 6 months later.
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ranking = 6
keywords = esophagus
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3/16. adenocarcinoma complicating Barrett's esophagus: an analysis of cell proliferation.

    In japan, cases of Barrett's esophagus with concurrent adenocarcinoma are relatively rare. We report herein a case of long-segment Barrett's esophagus-associated adenocarcinoma in a 72-year-old Japanese man. The surgical specimen showed that an ulcerating tumor, measuring 5.5 x 3.9 cm, was present in the lower esophagus adjacent to the esophagogastric junction, the background lower esophagus having an erythematous appearance. Histologically, the ulcerating tumor was a well-to-moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, with a small area of signet ring cell carcinoma invading the adventitia. In addition, the esophageal epithelium was replaced by columnar epithelium (9.5 cm in length) with multifocal dysplastic changes. Immunohistochemically, the number of Ki-67-positive cells gradually increased, moving from the normal gastric mucosa (mean Ki-67 labeling index [mKLI], 2.6%) through Barrett's epithelium (mKLI, 12.9%), low-grade dysplasia (mKLI, 16.9%), and high-grade dysplasia (mKLI. 23.7%) to invasive carcinoma, in that order, with labeling higher in the invasive tubular adenocarcinoma elements (mKLI, 40.5%) than in areas of signet ring cell carcinoma (mKLI, 20.4%). Findings in our patient suggest that increased cellular proliferation plays an integral part, in the progression of Barrett's metaplasia to adenocarcinoma. The collection of further cases for analysis will be necessary to confirm this hypothesis.
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ranking = 8
keywords = esophagus
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4/16. Barrett's adenocarcinoma of the esophagus with lymphoid stroma.

    We report a case of Barrett's adenocarcinoma of the esophagus with lymphoid stroma. We believe this is the first reported case of this entity, although six previous cases of esophageal lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma have been reported. The esophageal tumor from a 58-year-old man was examined histologically. In situ hybridization to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was also performed. The tumor consisted of a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with dense lymphoid cell infiltration in the invasive portions and a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma without lymphoid stroma in the mucosa. Barrett's epithelium was observed adjacent to the carcinoma. No positive signals for EBV were detected in the tumor cells. Six previously reported patients with esophageal lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas, and the current patient, all survived for longer than 24 months, a better outcome than that of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinomas of usual type. The data suggest that this tumor arose as a mucosal, well-differentiated adenocarcinoma without lymphoid stroma and that EBV had no relation to either its pathogenesis or progression.
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ranking = 5
keywords = esophagus
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5/16. Esophageal basaloid carcinoma with marked myoepithelial differentiation.

    A case of esophageal basaloid carcinoma with marked myoepithelial differentiation in a 60-year-old man is reported. The tumor arose as an exophytic mass, measuring 65 x 60 mm, in the middle thoracic esophagus. Approximately two-thirds of the tumor surface was covered with non-cancerous esophageal epithelium. The depth of tumor invasion was limited to the submucosal layer. Histologically, about 70% of the tumor contained a typical basaloid carcinoma component and about 30% contained glandular and intercalated duct-like components with distinct epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation. The tumor presented no component of distinct squamous cell carcinoma, but a small portion of cribriform-like structure, which is typical of adenoid cystic carcinoma, was visible. The inner epithelium composing the intercalated duct-like structure showed immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratin 14, and the outer epithelium lining adjacent to the stroma showed positivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin. These findings supported epithelial/myoepithelial differentiation. To our knowledge, our case is the first patient with an esophageal basaloid carcinoma showing marked myoepithelial differentiation.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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6/16. carcinosarcoma of the esophagus characterized by myoepithelial and ductal differentiations.

    We report a case of carcinosarcoma of the esophagus characterized by ductal and myoepithelial differentiation. A 61-year-old man was operated on for a polypoid tumor of the distal esophagus. Histologically, this tumor was composed of ductal structures and sarcomatous spindle cells surrounding the ducts at the central area of the tumor. The tumor was also composed of squamous cell and basaloid carcinoma in the periphery. Immunohistochemically, a few spindle cells surrounding the ductal structures showed immunopositivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin and S-100 protein. Electron microscopy revealed that the spindle cells had tonofilament and pinocytic vesicles in the cytoplasm, and basal lamina adjacent to the cytoplasmic membrane. Both of the results strongly supported the suggestion that the spindle cells may be myoepithelial cells. Basaloid carcinoma showed a gradual transition to chondrosarcomatous cells producing the matrix, which had both immunopositivities for S-100 protein and cytokeratin. Therefore, chondrosarcomatous cells may be derived from carcinoma cells. The histogenesis of this tumor may be associated with a totipotent stem cell of esophageal mucosa, which has the potential to differentiate into squamous cells, ductal cells or myoepithelial cells.
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ranking = 6
keywords = esophagus
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7/16. Rapid development of an advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

    This report describes the case of a 42-year-old alcoholic man who developed advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus following an endoscopic examination showing grossly normal mucosa only 8 months previously. We believe this is the first case report providing endoscopic images illustrating a progression from grossly normal mucosa to advanced carcinoma of the esophagus in only 8 months.
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ranking = 6
keywords = esophagus
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8/16. Superficial esophageal carcinoma in achalasia, detected by endoscopic surveillance.

    A 42 year old woman had undergone a Heller myotomy for achalasia of the cardia at age 28. Thereafter, she had become asymptomatic but reported for endoscopic follow-up examinations at three-yearly intervals. Fourteen years after surgery, endoscopy and biopsy revealed "carcinoma in situ" in the proximal esophagus and surgery was recommended. In the resected specimen, a circumscribed area of cancer was demonstrated that invaded the lamina propria but was confined to the mucosa. With the exception of mild and transient postoperative dysphagia, she had an uneventful postoperative course and remains well 16 months following surgery. This case demonstrates that endoscopic surveillance may detect early malignant changes in the achalasic esophagus and may possibly lead to an improvement in survival.
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ranking = 2
keywords = esophagus
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9/16. adenocarcinoma arising in a foregut cyst of the mediastinum.

    A case of malignant transformation in a mediastinal cyst of the esophageal reduplication type is presented. The cyst had been recognized 39 years previously, but remained asymptomatic until sudden growth occurred. It was resected totally from the esophagus and the patient recovered well. A review of the literature showed that malignancy in mediastinal foregut cysts is extremely rare.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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10/16. Trophoblastic differentiation in a malignant mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary.

    Trophoblastic differentiation in an extragonadal carcinoma is a rare and unusual phenomenon which has been observed in the carcinomas of stomach, bronchus, esophagus, ovary, liver, urinary bladder, endometrium, and, rarely, in the sarcomas. To our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been observed previously in a mixed mesodermal sarcoma (MMS), and the present communication is to record such a case of MMS of ovary with this phenomenon.
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ranking = 1
keywords = esophagus
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