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1/34. leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata: does malignant transformation occur? A literature review.

    leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata (LPD) is a rare smooth muscle tumor. In the literature more than 100 cases have been described. LPD is characterized by multiple small nodules on the peritoneal surface, mimicking a malignant process with metastases, but generally demonstrates benign histologic features. Exposure to estrogen seems to play an etiologic role. Many patients have uterine leiomyomas as well. The diagnosis of LPD is easily made on biopsy. Reduction of estrogen exposure is generally sufficient to cause regression of LPD. Surgical castration or gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists seem good alternatives in the case of progression or recurrence of LPD. In six patients a malignant leiomyosarcoma has been described shortly after the diagnosis of LPD was made. Five of these patients did not have uterine leiomyomas or exposure to exogenous or increased endogenous estrogen. The relationship with pregnancy in the sixth patient may be coincidental. Whether malignant transformation of LPD occurs remains uncertain. Characteristics of these patients differ from those of LPD patients and may indicate a high malignant potential, necessitating a different approach.
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2/34. Benign glandular peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex.

    A unique, deep-seated, benign, glandular peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) of the cerebellopontine angle is described. The tumor arose from the seventh and eighth cranial nerve complex in a 15-year-old boy without neurofibromatosis. Histologically, benign glands were embedded in a bland spindle cell stroma. The epithelial cells were immunoreactive for CAM 5.2, and focally for chromogranin. The spindle cells were positive for S100P. The benign glandular PNST unassociated with neurofibromatosis is a controversial entity. The superficial location of most reported cases has made it difficult to exclude entrapped adnexae as a source for the glands. This tumor was separate from the internal auditory meatus on MRI scan, the most likely source of entrapped glands at this site. This case is the first report of a deep-seated, benign, glandular peripheral nerve sheath tumor. It suggests that glandular differentiation in PNSTs, while unusual, is not synonymous with neurofibromatosis or malignancy.
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3/34. choriocarcinoma and partial hydatidiform moles.

    BACKGROUND: Partial hydatidiform moles (PMs) rarely require chemotherapy and have never previously been proven to transform into choriocarcinoma, the most malignant form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Consequently, some have questioned whether women with PMs need human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) follow-up. Here, we investigate whether PMs can transform into choriocarcinomas. methods: patients with a PM who developed a subsequent choriocarcinoma were identified from our GTD database. The histology of both PM and ensuing choriocarcinoma was reviewed and flow cytometry used to verify the triploid status of the PMs. To determine whether the choriocarcinoma arose from the PM, DNA from the PM and choriocarcinoma in each patient was compared using microsatellite polymorphisms. FINDINGS: Of the 3000 patients with PM, 15 required chemotherapy for persisting GTD. This was identified as choriocarcinoma in three cases. In one patient, the local pathologist could not differentiate between a PM or a hydropic abortion and neither central histological review nor hCG follow-up were obtained. This patient nearly died before the diagnosis of choriocarcinoma was made. Fortunately, the local pathologists correctly diagnosed PM in the two other patients who were then registered for hCG follow-up. Some months later, the hCG was rising and repeat uterine evacuation revealed choriocarcinoma. The PM was confirmed to be triploid in all three cases and genetic analysis showed that the subsequent choriocarcinomas contained identical single maternal and two paternal alleles at several independent loci. INTERPRETATION: Our results show that PMs can transform into choriocarcinoma. All patients with suspected PM should be reviewed centrally and, if confirmed, need hCG follow-up.
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4/34. Malignant melanoma in a burn scar.

    Cancers of various sorts are occasionally encountered in burn scars. These lesions are usually squamous cell carcinomas, and the burn scars are usually old. Very rarely, malignant melanoma is encountered. An 87-year-old nursing home patient who had been burned by a lightening strike at age 16 was evaluated. She had sustained a wound covering 2% or 3% of her body surface involving her neck and the upper portion of her anterior trunk that had required several grafts. A lesion was noted over the suprasternal notch approximately 3 months before admission. The biopsy was reported as malignant melanoma. She was subsequently treated by wide reexcision with an associated Z-plasty for neck release. Because of the patient's age and the presence of four areas of regional lymph nodes nearby into which metastasis might spread, no lymph node dissections were carried out. The specimen from the reexcision was reported as squamous cell carcinoma in situ, melanoma in situ, and multinucleated giant cell reaction, acute and chronic infiltrates. The wound margins were clear.
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5/34. Tissue-specific expression of SV40 in tumors associated with the li-fraumeni syndrome.

    Inactivation of wild-type p53 tumor suppressor function is the primary mechanism of tumor initiation in li-fraumeni syndrome (LFS) individuals with germline p53 mutations. Tumors derived from LFS patients frequently retain the normal p53 allele, suggesting that alternative mechanisms in addition to gene deletion must be involved in inactivating wild-type p53 protein. dna tumor viruses, such as SV40, target p53 for inactivation through the action of viral oncoproteins. We studied the probands from two unrelated LFS families, each of whom presented with multiple malignant neoplasms. Patient 1 developed an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and a choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC), while patient 2 developed a CPC and subsequently presented with both an osteosarcoma (OS) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We utilized DNA sequence analysis and immunohistochemistry to determine p53 gene status in the germline and tumors, as well as evidence for SV40 T-antigen oncoprotein expression. Each patient harbored a heterozygous germline p53 mutation at codons 175 and 273, respectively. In patient 1, the normal p53 gene was lost while the mutant p53 allele was reduced to homozygosity in the RMS. Both normal and mutant genes were maintained in the CPC. In patient 2, normal and mutant p53 alleles were retained in both the CPC and RCC. Both specific PCR and immunostaining detected SV40 T-antigen in both CPCs and the RCC. In addition to chromosomal alterations, epigenetic mechanisms may disrupt p53 function during tumorigenesis. In two LFS patients, we found SV40 DNA sequences and viral T-antigen expression that could account for inactivation of the normal p53 protein. Inactivation of p53 or other tumor suppressors by viral proteins may contribute to tumor formation in specific tissues of genetically susceptible individuals.
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6/34. An unusual association of monoclonal gammopathy, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria and myelodysplastic syndrome transformed into acute myeloid leukaemia: coexistence of triple clonal disorders.

    An unusual association of paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and monoclonal gammopathy is reported. A 60-year old male, who had a history of IgA monoclonal gammopathy, presented with haemoglobinuria and colic pain. flow cytometry showed CD55negative/59dim peripheral red cells, and bone marrow examination disclosed MDS. Eleven months, he developed later AML with disappearance of the PNH clones, although the monoclonal gammopathy persisted. The relationship between PNH and MDS has not fully been assessed, although our findings indicate that these triple clonal disorders, all coexisted in one patient.
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7/34. Transient CD30 nodal transformation of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma associated with cyclosporine treatment.

    BACKGROUND: mycosis fungoides (MF) may evolve from pre-existing chronic atopic or psoriasiform dermatitis and the histology can be equivocal. Early patch and plaque lesions of MF may evolve into tumors, disseminate to lymph nodes, bone marrow, and internal organs, and/or undergo transformation to a large cell size. methods: A patient with a history of "atopic dermatitis" followed by "psoriasis" rapidly developed exfoliative erythroderma and axillary lymphadenopathy following treatment with cyclosporine. At presentation, biopsy specimens of skin lesions and lymph nodes and staging were obtained. We present the treatment and follow-up of this patient and review the medical literature for similar cases. RESULTS: Multiple skin biopsy specimens from lesions revealed changes consistent with low-grade, cutaneous, T-cell lymphoma (MF) without evidence of large cell transformation and psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia. CD30 large cell transformation was present in the lymph node. Adenopathy and erythroderma resolved without systemic therapy following discontinuation of cyclosporine and treatment with psoralen/ultraviolet A (PUVA), isotretinoin, interferon-alpha, and antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: This case documents a close relationship between atopy, psoriasis, and the development of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and illustrates that an immunosuppressive agent, cyclosporine, can dramatically alter the course of the disease.
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8/34. microsatellite instability in gonadal tumors of XY pure gonadal dysgenesis patients.

    To investigate genetic alternation accompanied by malignant transformation in gonadal tumors of XY pure gonadal dysgenesis patients, we investigated microsatellite instability in the hMSH1, hMSH2, TP53, and DCC loci, and ras mutations in two patients. The gonadal tumors from the patients were combined gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma. microsatellite instability and/or loss of heterozygotes (LOH) at hMSH1, hMSH2, and TP53 were detected in the dysgerminoma lesions of the both patients, but were not observed in any normal tissues. In the analyses of the H-, K-, or N-ras genes, where specific mutations have been frequently reported, no mutations were observed in the tumors. It is suggested therefore that microsatellite instability plays an important role in malignant transformation of gonadal tumors in patients with XY pure gonadal dysgenesis.
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9/34. Radical resection of giant congenital melanocytic nevus and reconstruction with meek-graft covered integra dermal template.

    BACKGROUND: Giant congenital melanocytic nevi represent a surgical challenge, particularly in cases in which the size of the nevus exceeds certain extend and malignant transformations have to be considered. OBJECTIVE: To discuss through case report considerable surgical options when extensive giant congenital melanocytic nevi with malignant transformation are encountered. methods: We present an unusual case of a giant congenital melanocytic nevi of the entire back of a 44-year-old patient. To achieve radical resection with direct appropriate wound closure and acceptable outcome, the integument of the entire back was excised and covered with Integra, followed by split-thickness skin grafting after stable integration of the matrix. RESULTS: The approach resulted in a complete excision of the tumor and acceptable cosmetic and excellent biomechanical outcome. CONCLUSION: The introduced practice demonstrates a useful alternative to established methods, particularly if tumor excision in large areas and subsequent wound closure might be achieved in one procedure.
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10/34. Evidence of neural differentiation in a case of post-therapy primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma of bone.

    Neural differentiation with the appearance of ganglion-like cells has been reported in untreated primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing sarcoma (PNET/EWS) at peculiar sites, such as the cauda equina, and following treatment. The case is presented here of a 17-year-old girl with a tumor in the iliac bone. An open biopsy was diagnosed as PNET/EWS of the bone. The tumor had the typical morphology of this tumor type and showed diffuse membranous immunoreactivity for CD99, intense immunoreactivity for synaptophysin, and focal immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase and S-100 protein. Occasional reactivity for vimentin was evident, while no immunoreactivity for NB84a, Hu, chromogranins A and B, neurofilaments, cytokeratins, and desmin was present. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, followed by right internal hemipelvectomy. The post-treatment residual viable tumor showed a morphologic appearance resembling a neuroblastoma, with immunoreactivity for NB84a, Hu, synaptophysin, and chromogranins A and B, but not for CD99. RT-PCR performed on tumor tissue before and after therapy showed the presence of the EWS-FLI1 fusion transcript, type I in both samples. This case of PNET/EWS is unique in the sense of showing the typical fusion transcript associated with this tumor both in the morphologically typical pretherapy tumor and in the sample from the post-therapy specimen showing neuroblastoma-like features.
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