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1/3. Intranuclear fibrillary inclusions in influenza pneumonia.

    Electron microscopical study of the lung tissue from a 75-year-old man who died of influenza pneumonia (A/victoria/RI/76) demonstrated fibrillary inclusions in the nuclei of many alveolar lining cells, in bronchial epithelial cells, and also in endothelial cells. These inclusions were morphologically different from those previously reported in experimental animals. In view of previous experimental studies indicating the necessity of nuclear participation in the replication of influenza virus, these inclusions may be virus-induced structures. Also, possibly the presence of these inclusions in the nuclei of many endothelial cells might be indicative of endothelial damage of microvessels and may be a pathogenetically important factor in influenza pneumonia.
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2/3. Production of human warm-reacting red cell monoclonal autoantibodies by Epstein-Barr virus transformation.

    Monoclonal antibody technology has been used in both murine and human systems to produce a variety of antibodies that react with the human red cell (RBC). RBC monoclonal autoantibodies have been obtained from animal models of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), but to date no warm-reactive monoclonal autoantibodies have been generated from human B cells. Using the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformation method, clones of RBC autoantibodies were generated from two patients with AIHA. These antibodies reacted preferentially at 37 degrees C, agglutinated or bound to a variety of different RBC phenotypes, and were IgM in nature. The serologic reactivity of one clone showed a relative specificity to e RBCs that was similar to that seen in the patient's serum. These results are the first to demonstrate that warm-reactive RBC autoantibodies can be obtained from patients with AIHA using the technique of EBV transformation, and they further substantiate the existence of warm-reactive IgM RBC autoantibodies in the spectrum of warm AIHA.
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3/3. Regulation of human T-cell proliferation: T-cell growth factor and isolation of a new class of type-C retroviruses from human T-cells.

    The discovery, characterization, and purification of human T-cell growth factor (TCGF) has led to the establishment of continuously growing T-lymphoblast cell lines from normal people and from patients with certain T-cell neoplasias. In contrast to normal T-cells, neoplastic mature T-cells respond directly to TCGF, requiring no prior lectin or antigen in vitro activation. The transformed T-cell lines have phenotypic characteristics consistent with the neoplastic cells of their disease of origin. A novel retrovirus, human T-cell lymphoma-leukemia virus (HTLV), has been isolated from the fresh and cultured cells of two of these patients. Subsequent characterization of this virus has shown that it is not significantly related to any known animal retrovirus, is not an endogenous (genetically transmitted) virus of man, and so far has been associated only with fresh or cultured T-cells from patients with T-cell neoplasia. These results suggest that HTLV infected some mature T-cells of some people and that it might be involved in some neoplasias involving these cells.
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