Cases reported "Cellulitis"

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1/11. Severe pasteurella multocida infections in pregnant women.

    We report 2 cases of severe infections due to pasteurella multocida, both occurring during pregnancy in previously healthy women. Both women had contact with animals (dog and cat) but neither of them had been bitten. Apart from a slight decrease in IgG levels, no immunological defects could be detected. Both women had received oral phenoxymethylpenicillin in the early phase of the disease, but still fell ill with severe infections. One woman had meningitis while the other suffered from cellulitis with deep abscess formation.
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2/11. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease.
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3/11. pasteurella multocida meningitis in an adult: case report and review.

    pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of adult meningitis. Close animal contact prior to onset of illness is frequent and represents the usual mode of introduction of the organism. In reports of a total of 21 cases of P. multocida meningitis in adults (this case report and 20 described previously in the English-language literature), 18 researchers commented on the occurrence of animal contact: two cases (11%) involved cat bite, 13 (72%) involved animal contact without bite, and three (17%) occurred in the absence of recognized animal contact. Clinical presentation was typical of bacterial meningitides. overall mortality rate was 30%. The best predictors of poor outcome were initial hemodynamic instability and age greater than 60 years. Documented bacteremia (40% of cases) was not predictive of higher mortality. Effective therapy is based on early recognition of the possibility of P. multocida meningitis and prompt initiation of treatment with penicillin, ampicillin, or a third-generation cephalosporin.
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4/11. streptococcus zooepidemicus cellulitis and bacteraemia in a renal transplant recipient.

    A case of renal transplant recipient with streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C) cellulitis and bacteraemia is described. Human infections with this organism are very rare and this is the first case report of cellulitis caused by S. zooepidemicus. While animals are the reservoir for most human infections, a source was not defined in this patient.
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5/11. Infections due to group C streptococci in man.

    Although a common cause of infection in animals, group C streptococci are rarely noted to be pathogenic in man. A total of 150,000 blood cultures obtained at the Mayo Clinic from 1968 to 1977 revealed group C streptococci in only eight patients. Acute bacterial endocarditis, meningitis, pheumonia, cellulitis and bacteremia due to group C streptococci are described in a host who had undergone immunosuppression (immunosuppressed host), and the relatively few cases previously reported are reviewed. Although severe, these infections may respond favorably to penicillin therapy. endocarditis caused by group D streptococci is acute and destructive, and associated with early cardiac decompensation. The manifestations of cellulitis and pneumonia are similar to those when group A streptococci are causative organisms. meningitis due to group C streptococci is acute and severe, and responds slowly to antimicrobial therapy. Colonization also occurs.
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6/11. pasteurella multocida infections. Report of 34 cases and review of the literature.

    pasteurella multocida, a small, gram-negative coccobacillus , is part of the normal oral flora of many animals, including the dog and cat. P. multocida is the etiologic agent in a variety of infectious disease syndromes. We have reported 34 cases of infection caused by P. multocida and have reviewed the English literature. P. multocida infections may be divided into three broad groups: 1. Infections resulting from animal bites and scratches : The most common infections caused by P. multocida are local wound infections following animal bites or scratches . cats are the source of infection in 60 to 80% of cases and dogs in the great majority of the remainder. Local infections are characterized by the rapid appearance of erythema, warmth, tenderness, and frequently purulent drainage. The most common local complications are abscess formation and tenosynovitis. Serious local complications include septic arthritis proximal to bites or scratches , osteomyelitis resulting from direct inoculation or extension of cellulitis, and the combination of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, most commonly involving a finger or hand after a cat bite. 2. Isolation of P. multocida from the respiratory tract: The isolation of P. multocida from the respiratory tract must be interpreted differently than its isolation from other systemic sites. Most commonly P. multocida found in the respiratory tract is a commensal organism in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, but serious respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscesses may develop. Most patients with respiratory tract colonization or infection have a history of animal exposure. 3. Other systemic infections: P. multocida is recognized as a pathogen in a variety of systemic infections including bacteremia, meningitis, brain abscess, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and intra-abdominal abscess. P. multocida often acts as an opportunistic pathogen with a predilection for causing bacteremia in patients with liver dysfunction, septic arthritis in damaged joints, meningitis in the very young or elderly, and pulmonary colonization or invasion in patients with underlying respiratory tract abnormalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
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7/11. Extraintestinal human infection caused by edwardsiella tarda.

    edwardsiella tarda is an uncommon enteric bacterium which has been found generally in animal hosts and occasionally in human feces. Three cases of extraintestinal infection caused by E. tarda which are described herein include a typhoid-like illness, peritonitis with sepsis, and cellulitis from a wound acquired while fishing. The microbiology of E. tarda and the previous reports of infection due to this organism are reviewed.
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8/11. Report of cases of and taxonomic considerations for large-colony-forming Lancefield group C streptococcal bacteremia.

    Traditionally, group C streptococci include four species: streptococcus equisimilis, S. zooepidemicus, S. equi, and S. dysgalactiae, the first three of which are group C beta-hemolytic streptococci (GCBHS). However, many of the beta-hemolytic streptococci carrying Lancefield group C antigen isolated from clinical specimens are S. milleri. These organisms can be differentiated by colony size. We retrospectively collected data concerning large-colony-forming GCBHS bacteremia that occurred during a period of 8 years at the massachusetts General Hospital. A total of 222 cases of beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia were identified; data on the Lancefield grouping were available in 192 cases: 45 cases (23.6%) were group A, 96 cases (50%) were group B, 7 cases (3.6%) were group C (large colony forming), and 44 cases (22.9%) were group G. The medical records for cases of large-colony-forming GCBHS bacteremia were reviewed. In one case, the isolate was thought to be a contaminant; the other six cases are reported (five males and one female; mean age, 55 years). All patients had severe underlying conditions, and none had a history of exposure to animals. The clinical syndromes included two cases of cellulitis and one case each of endocarditis, myocardial infarction complicated by infection, pneumonia, and myofasciitis. The diagnoses for two patients with endovascular infections were delayed. Three of the six patients had fatal outcomes, and other two, after prolonged hospitalization, were transferred to a long-term rehabilitation center. We concluded that the severe outcomes reflect delay in diagnosis and treatment as well as the severity of the underlying diseases. The taxonomy of GCBHS is discussed. More reports differentiating large- and small-colony-forming GCBHS are needed.
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9/11. An unusual case of diabetic cellulitis due to Pasturella multocida.

    Pasturella multocida is a well known potential cause of infection following bites or scratches by animals. The organism causes the usual clinical manifestations of a rapidly developing cellulitis at the site of injury. The resultant infection is dangerous and can progress on to a deep infection, osteomyelitis, and septicemia. In compromised patients, the source and etiology of the infection may be obscure making definitive diagnosis difficult. This paper reviews a very unusual case of a foot infection in a diabetic patient that was due to a domestic pet licking an excoriation on the foot.
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10/11. anthrax as the cause of preseptal cellulitis.

    anthrax is an infectious disease caused by bacillus anthracis. It is primarily a disease of domestic animals such as cattle, goats, and sheep; but humans can rarely be infected by contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Our case is a 4-year-old boy who was initially diagnosed as preseptal cellulitis, but later he showed the characteristic anthrax lesions with a black necrotic eschar. Scrapings from the necrotic tissue showed gram positive rods and culture grew bacillus anthracis. The patient responded to intravenous administration of penicillin g, and the lesions resolved, leaving a scar on the right upper eyelid. Eyelid involvement of anthrax is rarely seen in clinical practice, but should be considered in differential diagnosis.
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