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1/101. Steroid-responsive multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with central involvement.

    We describe 2 patients with associated central and peripheral demyelination. Electrophysiological studies revealed a demyelinating polyneuropathy with sensory and motor conduction blocks. Visual evoked potentials were abnormal. Motor evoked potentials showed abnormal central conduction time in 1 patient. magnetic resonance imaging revealed regions of abnormal high signal in the spinal cord and brain; sural nerve biopsy disclosed a demyelinating neuropathy. Both patients showed clinical and electrophysiological improvement after steroid therapy.
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2/101. E.N.T. manifestations of Von Recklinghausen's disease.

    Von Recklinghausen's disease (VRD) is a neurocutaneous, systemic disease characterized by CNS tumors and disorders, cafe-au-lait spots, generalized cutaneous neurofibromata, skeletal deformities, and somatic and endocrine abnormalities. It is an autosomal dominant, hereditary disorder found in approximately 1:2500 to 3300 births. There are many manifestations of this disease in the head and neck region of interest to the otolaryngologist. case reports of three patients with multiple ENT involvements are detailed. A review of the literature is presented with a brief discussion of diagnosis and treatment. The most common intracranial tumor in the adult is the acoustic neuroma, usually bilateral, while in the child it is the astrocytoma. A defect in the sphenoid bone is common and may produce temporal lobe herniation into the orbit causing pulsatile exophthalmos. Involvement of the facial bones usually causes radiolucent defects secondary to neurofibromata within nerve pathways, and a variety of asymmetrical changes, especially within the mandible. "elephantiasis" of the face is a hypertrophy of the soft tissues overlying a neurofibroma, often quite extensive and disfiguring. Laryngeal and neck involvement may compromise the airway and early and repeated surgical intervention is required. The over-all malignancy rate approaches 30%, indicating that the patient with VRD may be predisposed to developing a malignancy. There appears to be an increased surgical risk in these patients, with some demonstrating abnormal responses to neuromuscular blockade.
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3/101. magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the cranial nerves.

    Correlation of findings on neurological examination of the cranial nerves with gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and neuropathology provides the optimal diagnostic use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Illustrations of the anatomy of each of the cranial nerves, with concise labeling of relevant anatomical relationships, are compared with brief neurological summaries and MRIs of patients.
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keywords = nerve
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4/101. central nervous system sarcoidosis--diagnosis and management.

    A series of 68 patients with neurosarcoidosis is reported, with particular emphasis on clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment. A classification system based on clinical diagnostic probability is proposed, consisting of probable and definite disease, the latter being dependent on finding sarcoid granulomas on nervous system histology, which was obtained in 12 patients (18%). The role of investigations, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest radiography, Kveim skin test, gallium 67 isotope scanning and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies, is considered. Sixty-two percent of patients presented with nervous system disease, most commonly affecting the optic nerve and chiasm. Other common presentations included cranial nerve palsies, spinal cord and brainstem manifestations. Investigations yielding most diagnostic information included the kveim test (41/48, 85% positive), raised CSF protein and/or cells (50/62, 81%) and gallium 67 scan (14/31, 45%). Eleven out of 29 patients (38%) patients showed meningeal enhancement on MRI scanning and 43% of scans demonstrated multiple white-matter lesions. Mean follow-up for the group was 4.6 years. Forty-seven patients were seen for > 18 months, and over half of these patients progressed despite corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapies. The benefit of a large patient database prospectively studied, with extended follow-up is discussed in order to learn more about prognosis and advance therapy in neurosarcoidosis.
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ranking = 1.8373374319364
keywords = nerve
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5/101. Acute dilated cardiomyopathy and central nervous system toxicity following propranolol intoxication.

    OBJECTIVE: We report a case of a 16-year-old boy who developed central nervous system (CNS) depression and acute dilated cardiomyopathy following ingestion of 3200 mg of propranolol in a suicide attempt. Early echocardiographic findings were the only sign of cardiac toxicity. DESIGN: A case report. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. RESULTS: This child developed significant acute dilated cardiomyopathy and severe CNS depression 2 hours after ingesting 3200 mg of propranolol. The child was treated with gastric lavage, activated charcoal, and mechanical ventilation. Following the echocardiographic findings, treatment with isoprenaline hydrochloride and glucagon were given intravenously. Echocardiographic examination 12 hours following treatment showed normal left ventricular size and function. No change in pulse rate or blood pressure was reported on admission and during his hospitalization. DISCUSSION: In the early stages of propranolol and other lipophilic beta-blocker intoxication, severe CNS depression can develop in the absence of clinical signs of cardiac toxicity. Early echocardiographic evaluation is important and may prevent delay in diagnosis and treatment of cardiac toxicity.
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keywords = block
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6/101. Meningeal leukemia in the blastic phase of chronic granulocytic leukemia.

    One hundred one patients were treated for Ph' positive chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) in the blastic phase. In seven of these (6.9 per cent), meningeal leukemia developed. Of the 99 patients who died of their disease, a complete remission was achieved in 12 with a median survival of 12 months (three to 28 months). Incomplete responders had a median survival of only 2.5 months (one to 14 months). In five of the 12 complete responders (42 per cent), but in only two of the incomplete responders (2.3 per cent), meningeal leukemia developed. The principal neurologic signs were cranial nerve palsies and papilledema. All patients had pleocytosis with myeloblasts in the cerebrospinal fluid. As in patients with acute leukemia and diffuse histiocytic lymphoma, increased survival of patients in whom hematologic remission from the blastic phase of CGL is achieved may allow sufficient time for the development of meningeal leukemia. Intrathecal methotrexate is extremely successful in treating this complication. cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis was eradicated in all seven of our patients, and neurologic symptoms and signs were completely eliminated in five patients. No evidence of meningeal leukemia was found in three of the five patients in whom an autopsy was performed.
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ranking = 0.91866871596822
keywords = nerve
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7/101. Two instances of central nervous system toxicity in the same patient following repeated ropivacaine-induced brachial plexus block.

    We describe two instances of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity in the same patient following repeated brachial plexus blocks induced by high doses of ropivacaine (6 mg x kg(-1) and 4.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively). Although very high total and free plasma concentrations of ropivacaine were found up to 98 min after induction of the blocks, no signs of cardiovascular toxicity apart from hypertension and sinus tachycardia were observed. The measured plasma concentrations are the highest so far reported in the literature. We conclude that this case demonstrates the high cardiovascular safety level of ropivacaine. These high doses, however, resulted in severe toxic CNS symptoms. Therefore, it is stressed that the dose in relation to the weight of the patient must be calculated when administering a large volume of local anesthetic.
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ranking = 0.48798770419068
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8/101. Severe lightning pain after subarachnoid block in a patient with neuropathic pain of central origin: which drug is best to treat the pain?

    OBJECTIVE: There have been many reports that spinal anesthesia induces severe lightning pain in the lower limbs of patients with phantom limb pain, tabes dorsalis, or causalgia. We report on a patient with neuropathic pain of central origin who showed newly developed severe lightning pain after therapeutic subarachnoid block (SAB). We performed SAB 16 times in this patient, and he complained of severe pain each time. We investigated which drug was best for treating such induced pain by administering various drugs to the patient. SETTING: The patient was hospitalized for treatment and observation. PATIENT: The patient was a 48-year-old man with neuropathic pain secondary to an incomplete spinal cord injury at the cervical segment. INTERVENTIONS: Various drugs were administered for relieving the newly developed severe pain, and the effectiveness of these agents was compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous thiopental, fentanyl, butorphanol, ketamine, midazolam, droperidol, and sevoflurane-oxygen anesthesia were quite effective. Intramuscular butorphanol was not effective. Intravenous physiologic saline and atropine sulfate as a placebo, intrathecal morphine hydrochloride, intravenous mexiletine, and lidocaine were ineffective. Intravenous thiopental (approximately 1 mg/kg) was thought to obtain the best pain relief because it stopped the pain quickly, the dose needed was subanesthetic, and there was no adverse effect.
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ranking = 0.4066564201589
keywords = block
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9/101. Thoracic spine arachnoid ossification with and without cord cavitation. Report of three cases.

    Thoracic spine arachnoid ossification is a relatively rare disease that affects mainly women and causes sensory, motor, and sphinctal symptoms associated with inferior limb pain. Based on three cases, the authors comment on pathogenic and surgery-related aspects of the disease. The patient in Case 1 was followed over the course of 23 years. Spinal cavitation is highlighted in Case 2, and yellow, gross, half-ring ossification is described in Case 3. calcium deposits usually occur in the middle and lower thoracic spine where the majority of trabeculated arachnoid cells are located. Operative treatment does not interrupt the ossification process, which continues over time, causing progressive deterioration in the patient. Spinal cavitation can occur due to spinal cord tethering, stretching, and central cord edema formation, accompanied by cerebrospinal fluid blockage and pulse pressure changes. The results of surgical intervention are poor, offering short-term recovery with later deterioration. Multiple pathogenic factors are involved in this clinical syndrome including metabolic changes.
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keywords = block
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10/101. Reorganization of the human central nervous system.

    The key strategies on which the discovery of the functional organization of the central nervous system (CNS) under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions have been based included (1) our measurements of phase and frequency coordination between the firings of alpha- and gamma-motoneurons and secondary muscle spindle afferents in the human spinal cord, (2) knowledge on CNS reorganization derived upon the improvement of the functions of the lesioned CNS in our patients in the short-term memory and the long-term memory (reorganization), and (3) the dynamic pattern approach for re-learning rhythmic coordinated behavior. The theory of self-organization and pattern formation in nonequilibrium systems is explicitly related to our measurements of the natural firing patterns of sets of identified single neurons in the human spinal premotor network and re-learned coordinated movements following spinal cord and brain lesions. Therapy induced cell proliferation, and maybe, neurogenesis seem to contribute to the host of structural changes during the process of re-learning of the lesioned CNS. So far, coordinated functions like movements could substantially be improved in every of the more than 100 patients with a CNS lesion by applying coordination dynamic therapy. As suggested by the data of our patients on re-learning, the human CNS seems to have a second integrative strategy for learning, re-learning, storing and recalling, which makes an essential contribution of the functional plasticity following a CNS lesion. A method has been developed by us for the simultaneous recording with wire electrodes of extracellular action potentials from single human afferent and efferent nerve fibres of undamaged sacral nerve roots. A classification scheme of the nerve fibres in the human peripheral nervous system (PNS) could be set up in which the individual classes of nerve fibres are characterized by group conduction velocities and group nerve fibre diameters. Natural impulse patterns of several identified single afferent and efferent nerve fibres (motoneuron axons) were extracted from multi-unit impulse patterns, and human CNS functions could be analyzed under physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions. With our discovery of premotor spinal oscillators it became possible to judge upon CNS neuronal network organization based on the firing patterns of these spinal oscillators and their driving afferents. Since motoneurons fire occasionally for low activation and oscillatory for high activation, the coherent organization of subnetworks to generate macroscopic function is very complex and for the time being, may be best described by the theory of coordination dynamics. Since oscillatory firing has also been observed by us in single motor unit firing patterns measured electromyographically, it seems possible to follow up therapeutic intervention in patients with spinal cord and brain lesions not only based on the activity levels and phases of motor programs during locomotion but also based on the physiologic and pathophysiologic firing patterns and recruitment of spinal oscillators. The improvement of the coordination dynamics of the CNS can be partly measured directly by rhythmicity upon the patient performing rhythmic movements coordinated up to milliseconds. Since rhythmic dynamic, coordinated, stereotyped movements are mainly located in the spinal cord and only little supraspinal drive is necessary to initiate, maintain, and terminate them, rhythmic, dynamic, coordinated movements were used in therapy to enforce reorganization of the lesioned CNS by improving the self-organization and relative coordination of spinal oscillators (and their interactions with occasionally firing motoneurons) which became pathologic in their firing following CNS lesion. Paraparetic, tetraparetic spinal cord and brain-lesioned patients re-learned running and other movements by an oscillator formation and coordination dynamic therapy. Our development in neurorehabilitation is in accordance with those of theoretical and computational neurosciences which deal with the self-organization of neuronal networks. In particular, jumping on a springboard 'in-phase' and in 'anti-phase' to re-learn phase relations of oscillator coupling can be understood in the framework of the Haken-Kelso-Bunz coordination dynamic model. By introducing broken symmetry, intention, learning and spasticity in the landscape of the potential function of the integrated CNS activity, the change in self-organization becomes understandable. movement patterns re-learned by oscillator formation and coordination dynamic therapy evolve from reorganization and regeneration of the lesioned CNS by cooperative and competitive interplay between intrinsic coordination dynamics, extrinsic therapy related inputs with physiologic re-afferent input, including intention, motivation, supervised learning, interpersonal coordination, and genetic constraints including neurogenesis. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)
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keywords = nerve
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