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1/31. A case of hiv-associated cerebral histoplasmosis successfully treated with fluconazole.

    Clinically apparent involvement of the central nervous system is a rare event in cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, even in hiv-infected persons. Despite therapy with amphotericin b, mortality remains very high. Reported here is the case of an hiv-infected patient with a 3-month history of fever, cough, weight loss and miliary lung infiltrates. Four weeks after initiation of tuberculostatic therapy, high-grade fever, neurological symptoms, personality changes and respiratory deterioration occurred. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed multiple mass lesions, and a chest radiograph revealed worsening of pulmonary infiltrates. methenamine silver staining of a lung biopsy specimen demonstrated histoplasma capsulatum. Subsequently, this pathogen was cultured from lavage fluid. Following high-dose intravenous fluconazole therapy (800 mg once daily), the patient's condition improved markedly within 10 days, followed by an almost complete resolution of pulmonary and cerebral mass lesions. This is believed to be the first documented case of rapid improvement of disseminated histoplasmosis with central nervous system involvement in an hiv-infected patient upon induction of therapy with fluconazole.
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2/31. Multiple infarcts in a patient with cerebral phaeohyphomycosis: CT and MRI.

    Phaeohyphomycosis is an uncommon disorder caused by a variety of saprophytic fungi having distinctive morphologic features. central nervous system infection typically occurs in the absence of predisposing factors and usually manifest symptoms and signs of abscess formation. We describe an otherwise healthy young man whose presentation with cerebral phaeohyphomycosis was subacute meningitis and stroke. neuroimaging studies revealed multiple parenchymal lesions having the characteristics of recent infarcts; several vascular territories were involved. The nature of these lesions was confirmed histologically at autopsy. To our knowledge, such radiologic appearances have not previously been reported in this condition.
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3/31. Acute isolated cerebral mucormycosis in a patient with high grade non-Hodgkins lymphoma.

    A 57-year-old female in complete remission of grade IV non-Hodgkin lymphoma whilst on intensive chemotherapy, suddenly developed unilateral hemispheric stroke with a fatal outcome in 3 days. She was apyrexial and had received antifungal prophylaxis during her treatment. Post-mortem examination showed complete thrombosis of the internal carotid artery leading to infarction in the territory of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries. Microscopic examination of the brain showed involvement of intra-cranial vessel walls and brain parenchyma by mucormyces, with no evidence of systemic mucormycosis. Isolated cerebral mucormycosis is a rare occurrence, more commonly found in intravenous drug abusers, but can occur in patients with haematological malignancy.
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4/31. Cerebral mucormycosis: proton MR spectroscopy and MR imaging.

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was integrated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of a case of cerebral mucormycosis. MRS showed markedly elevated lactate, depleted N-acetyl aspartate and metabolite resonances attributable to succinate and acetate. The spectroscopy profile is essentially similar to that of bacterial abscess but without the commonly seen resonances of the amino acids valine, leucine and isoleucine. Our extensive literature review did not yield any reports of MRS findings on cerebral mucormycosis. MRS prospectively limited the differential diagnoses given the otherwise nonspecific and complex MR imaging findings in our immunosuppressed patient.
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5/31. amphotericin b lipid complex for the treatment of recurrent blastomycosis of the brain in a patient previously treated with itraconazole.

    This is the first reported case of cerebral blastomycosis successfully treated with amphotericin b lipid complex.
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6/31. cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to a novel species: report of a case and review of the literature.

    cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is a rare disease caused by dematiaceous (darkly pigmented) fungi. Cladophialophora species are highly neurotropic, and Cladophialophora bantiana (synonym=Xylohypha bantiana or C. trichoides) is the most commonly identified agent. Most reported cases of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis have occurred in immunocompetent patients; however, some case reports and experimental data have suggested that cellular immune deficiency is a risk factor. We report a case of pulmonary and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in a cardiac transplant patient due to a newly identified species of Cladophialophora. Optimal management includes both antifungal therapy and surgery.
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7/31. An intracranial aspergilloma with low signal on T2-weighted images corresponding to iron accumulation.

    We present a case of cerebral aspergillosis in an immunocompetent patient. The MRI signal characteristics were compared with the histologic findings. Irregular low-signal zones were demonstrated between the wall of the abscess and the central necrosis on T2-weighted images; the pathology specimen revealed concentrated iron in these transitional zones but no hemosiderin. iron is an essential element for the growth of fungal hyphae. The low-signal zones may represent the areas where there was active proliferation of aspergillus, and the unique location of the low signal may be a helpful imaging characteristic for the diagnosis of an aspergillus abscess.
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8/31. Isolation of a Nodulisporium species from a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis.

    A fungal infection of the brain of a 55-year-old male patient is reported. The lesion and involved fungus were located exclusively in the right medial temporo-parietal region. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection of the lesion and antifungal chemotherapy. Few pathogenic dematiaceous fungi exhibit neurotropism and can cause primary infection in the central nervous system (CNS). The etiological agent is described as a Nodulisporium species. To date Nodulisporium has never been reported as an agent of CNS infection in humans.
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9/31. Disseminated Cladophialophora bantiana infection in a heart transplant recipient.

    cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Cladophialophora bantiana, a dematiaceous fungus, is a rare disease. The majority of cases have been reported among immunocompetent patients; only 4 cases have been published that describe transplantation patients. The overall prognosis is poor. Surgical therapy in combination with chemotherapy with itraconazole is recommended. We report the case of a heart transplant recipient with cutaneous, cerebral, and lung manifestation of Cladophialophora bantiana who died despite surgical and systemic, high-dosage itraconazole treatment.
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keywords = cerebral
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10/31. Mycotic aneurysms as lethal complication of brain pseudallescheriasis in a near-drowned child: a CT demonstration.

    Intracranial true mycotic aneurysms are rare and generally lethal. We report a case of a near-drowned child with brain abscesses due to pseudallescheria boydii, a saprophytic fungus, who died after subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred. CT showed contrast-enhancing lesions indicative of aneurysms of basilar and right posterior cerebral arteries that could not be appreciated 2 days before. P. boydii is often resistant to commonly used antimycotic drugs. Because CNS infection is frequently associated with near-drowning, early diagnosis and specific therapy are strongly recommended for these patients.
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