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1/22. A case of hiv-associated cerebral histoplasmosis successfully treated with fluconazole.

    Clinically apparent involvement of the central nervous system is a rare event in cases of disseminated histoplasmosis, even in hiv-infected persons. Despite therapy with amphotericin b, mortality remains very high. Reported here is the case of an hiv-infected patient with a 3-month history of fever, cough, weight loss and miliary lung infiltrates. Four weeks after initiation of tuberculostatic therapy, high-grade fever, neurological symptoms, personality changes and respiratory deterioration occurred. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed multiple mass lesions, and a chest radiograph revealed worsening of pulmonary infiltrates. methenamine silver staining of a lung biopsy specimen demonstrated histoplasma capsulatum. Subsequently, this pathogen was cultured from lavage fluid. Following high-dose intravenous fluconazole therapy (800 mg once daily), the patient's condition improved markedly within 10 days, followed by an almost complete resolution of pulmonary and cerebral mass lesions. This is believed to be the first documented case of rapid improvement of disseminated histoplasmosis with central nervous system involvement in an hiv-infected patient upon induction of therapy with fluconazole.
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2/22. Multiple infarcts in a patient with cerebral phaeohyphomycosis: CT and MRI.

    Phaeohyphomycosis is an uncommon disorder caused by a variety of saprophytic fungi having distinctive morphologic features. central nervous system infection typically occurs in the absence of predisposing factors and usually manifest symptoms and signs of abscess formation. We describe an otherwise healthy young man whose presentation with cerebral phaeohyphomycosis was subacute meningitis and stroke. neuroimaging studies revealed multiple parenchymal lesions having the characteristics of recent infarcts; several vascular territories were involved. The nature of these lesions was confirmed histologically at autopsy. To our knowledge, such radiologic appearances have not previously been reported in this condition.
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3/22. Recurrent blastomycosis of the central nervous system: case report and review.

    Although blastomycosis of the central nervous system (CNS) occurs in approximately 4% of patients with blastomycosis, recurrent CNS blastomycosis is very rare. We review the clinical features, treatment, and outcome of 4 previously reported cases. We also report a case of recurrent CNS blastomycosis successfully treated with surgery and liposomal amphotericin b after an inadequate response to amphotericin b therapy. This treatment may be an alternate approach for management of similar cases.
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keywords = nervous system
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4/22. central nervous system aspergillosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Report of 6 cases and review.

    central nervous system (CNS) aspergillosis is a relatively uncommon complication of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. We describe 6 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who developed CNS aspergillosis, and we review a total of 33 cases of CNS aspergillosis among hiv-infected individuals that were diagnosed by histology and/or culture. All patients were diagnosed with advanced hiv infection. Major risk factors for the disease included neutropenia and corticosteroid use. The most common presenting symptoms were nonspecific neurologic manifestations including headache, cranial or somatic nerve weakness or paresthesia, altered mental status, and seizures. The most common sites of additional aspergillus involvement were the lungs, sinuses, ears, and orbits, while in one-fourth of the cases CNS was the only site of aspergillus infection. The final diagnosis of CNS aspergillosis was made on autopsy in more than half the cases, and medical treatment of CNS aspergillosis was unsuccessful in all cases. CNS aspergillosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of hiv-infected patients who present with nonspecific neurologic symptoms and signs. If we take into account the much higher prevalence of invasive aspergillosis of the lungs, the findings in the present report suggest that CNS aspergillosis in hiv-infected individuals occurs more often as a result of direct extension from the sinuses, orbits, and ears than through hematogenous spread from the lungs. physicians should be aware that the CNS might be the only site of aspergillus involvement and include CNS aspergillosis in the differential diagnosis of hiv-infected patients presenting with focal neurologic signs and symptoms, especially when the head CT reveals hypodense lesions.
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5/22. Isolation of a Nodulisporium species from a case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis.

    A fungal infection of the brain of a 55-year-old male patient is reported. The lesion and involved fungus were located exclusively in the right medial temporo-parietal region. The patient was successfully treated with surgical resection of the lesion and antifungal chemotherapy. Few pathogenic dematiaceous fungi exhibit neurotropism and can cause primary infection in the central nervous system (CNS). The etiological agent is described as a Nodulisporium species. To date Nodulisporium has never been reported as an agent of CNS infection in humans.
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6/22. Management of CNS mucormycosis in the pediatric patient.

    Rhinocerebral mucormycosis (RM) is a rare, rapidly progressive disorder caused by fungi from the Mucoraceae family. With extensive central nervous system involvement, this disease is uniformly fatal within weeks. mucormycosis normally presents in poorly controlled diabetics, intravenous drug abusers and immunocompromised patients. Many have advocated radical surgical resection (i.e. exenteration of the cavernous sinus with carotid sacrifice and en bloc resection) with administration of amphotericin b. We present a case of mucormycosis involving the paranasal sinuses and cranial base in a pediatric patient who experienced long-term survival with a more limited resection. We also present a review of the relevant literature. A 14-year-old diabetic male presented with RM with involvement of the bilateral frontal lobes, right basal ganglia and temporal lobe. Additionally, there was involvement of the sphenoid sinus and right cavernous sinus with extension into the posterior fossa along the course of the trigeminal nerve and encasement with narrowing of the right carotid artery. The patient underwent sinus endoscopy with debridement of necrotic fungal tissue and bone. This was followed by craniotomy with evacuation of bifrontal, right temporal and basal ganglia abscesses in such a way that all abscess cavities communicated. An Ommaya reservoir was placed into the largest cavity. The patient continued to receive intrathecal and intravenous antibiotics as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The patient was clinically and radiographically free of disease 1 year after diagnosis. While invasive RM is generally a fatal disease, this rare disorder can be treated successfully without radical resection, particularly if multimodality treatment options are implemented.
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7/22. Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system in immunocompetent hosts: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Background: Phaeohyphomycosis refers to infections caused by phaeoid fungi that can have an aggressive course in normal hosts. Involvement of the central nervous system may occur with a generally poor outcome. Clinical report and literature review: We report a case of Bipolaris sp. brain abscess in an immunologically competent host. We also review all previous cases of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis in normal hosts reported in the literature to date. Conclusions: Central nervous system phaeohyphomycosis remains an unusual disease; however, its incidence has been increasing in recent years. The prognosis of this condition is still poor, despite medical and surgical interventions. Aggressive diagnostic approaches and careful interpretation of cultures might modify the natural history of this disease.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = nervous system
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8/22. Tumoral form of aspergillosis in central nervous system (cerebral aspergilloma): case report.

    aspergillosis of the central nervous system is an uncommon infection, mainly occurring in immunocompromised patients. It may be presented in several forms: meningitis, mycotic aneurysms, infarcts and the tumoral form (aspergilloma). The authors report a case of a diabetic patient with cerebral aspergilloma.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = nervous system
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9/22. central nervous system paracoccidioidomycosis: case report and review.

    paracoccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by a dimorphic fungus (paracoccidioides brasiliensis). The most common lesions frequently occur in the bucopharinx mucosa. Other lesions occur in the adrenal glands, liver, bone, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and nervous system. We report here a case of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis. The patient was a 49 year-old male, who consulted due to neurological symptoms (cephalalgia, speech difficulty and one tonic clonic seizure with urinary incontinence) of eight months duration. Upon physical examination it was observed an emaciated male with nail clubbing, a skin ulcer with raised edges and a crusted bottom of 4 x 2 cm in diameter located in the right supraclavicular region and an ulcerated lesion in the left tonsil with edema. The rest of the physical examination reveled a discrete left side hemiparesis and pulmonary rales in the left hemitorax. The fungus was identified through direct examination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The histopathology of suprarenal, lungs, brain and skin showed multiple paracoccidioidal granulomas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third case reported in the literature. We review the literature on the pathogenesis and prevalence of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis.
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ranking = 2.5
keywords = nervous system
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10/22. Fatal cerebral phaeohyphomycosis due to Curvularia lunata in an immunocompetent patient.

    Curvularia infections in humans are relatively uncommon despite the ubiquitous presence of this soil-dwelling dematiaceous fungus in the environment. Originally thought to be solely a pathogen of plants, Curvularia has been described as a pathogen of humans and animals in the last half-century, causing respiratory tract, cutaneous, and corneal infections. Only three previous cases of central nervous system involvement by Curvularia have been documented in the medical literature. We report a fatal case of cerebral Curvularia infection in which there was no known history of immunocompromise or prior respiratory tract or sinus infection in the patient.
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