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1/7. Outbreak of severe neurologic involvement associated with enterovirus 71 infection.

    enterovirus 71 has been associated with several outbreaks, as well as sporadic cases, of central nervous system infection and has a worldwide distribution. Seven children with encephalitis and five with aseptic meningitis caused by enterovirus 71 were seen at Otsu Municipal Hospital during the summer of 1997. The infections were confirmed serologically, although detection of the viral genome in cerebrospinal fluid was unsuccessful. Seven children were diagnosed as having hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome, two were diagnosed as having herpangina, and three patients younger than 12 months old developed no eruptions. The skin or mucosal manifestations of this outbreak demonstrated considerable variation. The enterovirus 71 strain that caused the outbreak had a strong neurovirulent tendency. Among the patients with encephalitis, symptoms originating from the impairment of diencephalon were seen in four patients, and those originating from cerebellar impairment were seen in two patients. brain magnetic resonance imaging in one patient revealed an abnormality in the pons. The neurologic manifestations associated with enterovirus 71 infection may be characterized by involvement of the cerebellum, brainstem, and diencephalon. enterovirus 71 is one of the pathogenic viruses that cause hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome, as well as a variety of other clinical manifestations. The most important of these is neurologic disease, especially in infants and young children.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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2/7. Impact of cerebrospinal fluid PCR on the management of hiv-infected patients with varicella-zoster virus infection of the central nervous system.

    Over a 2 year period, we identified five hiv-infected patients who presented with central nervous system infection caused by varicella-zoster virus, three with myelitits, and two with meningoencephalitis. All five patients were profoundly immunocompromised. Clinical presentation of these patients overlapped to a significant extent with diseases caused by other viruses, e.g. CMV. Indeed, in one case, a dual infection with CMV was diagnosed, but the respective role of each virus was ascertained by in situ hybridisation. At the time of CNS involvement, only one patient had active VZV cutaneous lesions, which were instrumental in diagnosing her condition. In contrast, PCR for VZV dna in the CSF was helpful in making a diagnosis in the four other cases, one of which was confirmed by a post mortem. Of these five patients, two patients developed VZV disease while receiving oral acyclovir and had foscarnet treatment initiated when MRI demonstrated widespread lesions. They did not respond to antiviral therapy. The three other patients had intravenous acyclovir initiated at a time when no or limited parenchymal lesions were observed by MRI. Two of these three patients had VZV infection diagnosed solely on the basis of PCR: all three responded to treatment. Our data show that reactivation of VZV involving the central nervous system occurs frequently in the absence of cutaneous lesions. PCR of cerebrospinal fluid may help in making an early diagnosis which is probably a prerequisite for successful treatment of VZV infection of the CNS.
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ranking = 3.953822845728
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, varicella, zoster
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3/7. Herpesvirus dna detection in cerebral spinal fluid: differences in clinical presentation between alpha-, beta-, and gamma-herpesviruses.

    To evaluate the role of 6 human herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 and varicella zoster virus (VZV)) in infections of the nervous system, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 662 patients with suspected viral aetiology to neurological symptoms were investigated for presence of herpesviral dna in a PCR-based study. Of the 69 patients (2 patients had 2 herpesvirus dna detected in CSF) who had herpesvirus dna detected in the CSF, 60 (87%) were non-immunocompromised (CMV 7; HHV-6 6; EBV 16; HSV-1 18; HSV-2 9 and VZV 6) and 9 (13%) were immunocompromised (CMV 3; HHV-6 0; EBV 5; HSV-1 0; HSV-2 1 and VZV 0). The study was performed in a retrospective/prospective manner. The HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV and CMV dna-positive patients usually had typical clinical syndromes, such as encephalitis/myelitis and meningitis, but also other neurological conditions were associated with findings of these viruses. HHV-6 and EBV dna were detected in patients presenting with a variety of neurological symptoms, and in some of the cases, concurrent with diagnosis of other infections of the central nervous system. Despite the overall variability of clinical conditions seen, a pattern associated with each investigated herpesvirus was discernable as regards clinical presentation.
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ranking = 11.909900642061
keywords = varicella zoster, herpesvirus, encephalitis, varicella, zoster
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4/7. rotavirus encephalopathy: pathogenesis reviewed.

    Two cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis associated with neurological involvement, one with encephalitis (defined by abnormal neurological signs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and detection of rotavirus genomic nucleic acid in the CSF) and one with a non-inflammatory encephalopathy (defined by abnormal neurological signs, an entirely normal CSF and detection of rotavirus genomic nucleic acid in the CSF), are presented and used as a basis to review and explore potential pathogenetic mechanisms, including direct viral replication within neurons and indirect effects of the newly described rotavirus 'enterotoxin'.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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5/7. dengue virus infection of the central nervous system (CNS): a case report from brazil.

    Dengue infection that is accompanied by unusual complications has been described in brazil. We report on the presence of dengue virus in the central nervous system (CNS) of a patient who died in 1998 in Rio Grande do Norte, northeast brazil. DEN-2 viruses were isolated from the brain liver, and lymphnode tissue of a 67-year-old man whose signs and symptoms were those of dengue infection and a secondary immune response. A postmortem revealed nose bleeds a liver that was brownish with yellow areas, and pulmonary and cerebrae congestion. Immunoperoxidase staining showed a dengue antigen-specific positive reaction in the gray matter cells of the cerebrall cortex; a granular citoplasmatic reaction was seen in the neurons. Dengue infection should always be considered as a cause encephalitis in tropical countries, especially in those where the disease is endemic.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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6/7. CNS listeriosis confused with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with a malignant insulinoma.

    We describe a case of presumed listeria monocytogenes rhomboencephalitis, which was initially confused with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in a patient with a malignant carcinoid tumor. Long-term corticosteroid treatment and immunosuppression caused by malignancy predisposed the patient to developing listeriosis. The clinical and radiologic features of this illustrative case are described. listeriosis is an important treatable differential diagnosis in patients with malignancy presenting with neurologic signs.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = encephalitis
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7/7. Human herpesvirus 6 genome and antigen in acute multiple sclerosis lesions.

    Evidence for a candidate multiple sclerosis (MS) virus, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), was sought in biopsy specimens of acute lesions that presented clinically as cerebral tumors obtained from 5 patients. Histopathology, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical course confirmed the diagnosis of MS in each case. A sensitive in situ polymerase chain reaction (ISPCR) method was used to detect HHV-6 genome, in conjunction with immunocytochemical staining (ICC) to detect viral and cellular antigens. ISPCR revealed numerous oligodendrocytes, lymphocytes, and microglia containing HHV-6 genome within all lesions, whereas ICC showed only the HHV-6 glycoprotein 116 antigen in some reactive astrocytes and microglia. High frequencies of neuroglial and inflammatory cells containing HHV-6 genome were present in acute-phase lesion tissue from patients who were free of the effects of chronic MS and had not been received immunomodulatory therapy for MS. The prevalence of HHV-6 genome-containing cells, including oligodendrocytes, in each lesion suggests that HHV-6 plays a role in the demyelinative pathogenesis of MS; the significance of the discrepant expression of viral antigens remains uncertain.
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ranking = 4.4361353885064
keywords = herpesvirus
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