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1/9. Chagasic meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnosis, follow-up, and genetic characterization of trypanosoma cruzi.

    early diagnosis of the clinical reactivation of Chagas' disease in human immunodeficiency virus- and trypanosoma cruzi-coinfected persons is fundamental for a good prognosis. polymerase chain reaction rapidly and efficiently demonstrated the presence and elimination of T. cruzi in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with chagasic meningoencephalitis. Characterization of T. cruzi, directly and indirectly in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstrated homogeneity of kinetoplast dna and the presence of lineage 1 (T. cruzi II) in both parasite populations.
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ranking = 1
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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2/9. An autopsy case of amebic meningoencephalitis. The first Japanese case caused by balamuthia mandrillaris.

    We report here the first case of amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in a 78-year-old Japanese woman with sjogren's syndrome. Fourteen days before her death, she presented with high fever and lost consciousness and later developed neck stiffness and abducens palsy. Computed tomography scans of the brain demonstrated multiple low-density areas throughout the brain. Neuropathologically, hemorrhagic and necrotic lesions with many amebic trophozoites were scattered in the brain and spinal cord. Granulomatous lesions were only rarely found. The amebas were identified as balamuthia mandrillaris based on immunofluorescence assay. Clinicopathologically, our case was thought to be an intermediate between primary amebic meningoencephalitis due to Negleria fowleri and granulomatous amebic encephalitis due to Acanthameba species. Essentially, the case was one of an elderly person with suspected immunodeficiency with fulminant necrotic meningoencephalitis and scanty granulomatous lesions of 14 days course.
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ranking = 1.4275434792899
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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3/9. Environmental isolation of balamuthia mandrillaris associated with a case of amebic encephalitis.

    This report describes the first isolation of the ameba balamuthia mandrillaris from an environmental soil sample associated with a fatal case of amebic encephalitis in a northern california child. Isolation of the ameba into culture from autopsied brain tissue confirmed the presence of Balamuthia: In trying to locate a possible source of infection, soil and water samples from the child's home and play areas were examined for the presence of Balamuthia: The environmental samples (plated onto nonnutrient agar with escherichia coli as a food source) contained, in addition to the ameba, a variety of soil organisms, including other amebas, ciliates, fungi, and nematodes, as contaminants. Presumptive Balamuthia amebas were recognized only after cultures had been kept for several weeks, after they had burrowed into the agar. These were transferred through a succession of nonnutrient agar plates to eliminate fungal and other contaminants. In subsequent transfers, axenic Naegleria amebas and, later, tissue cultures (monkey kidney cells) served as the food source. Finally, the amebas were transferred to cell-free axenic medium. in vitro, the Balamuthia isolate is a slow-growing organism with a generation time of approximately 30 h and produces populations of approximately 2 x 10(5) amebas per ml. It was confirmed as Balamuthia by indirect immunofluorescence staining with rabbit anti-Balamuthia serum and human anti-Balamuthia antibody-containing serum from the amebic encephalitis patient. The environmental isolate is similar in its antimicrobial sensitivities and identical in its 16S ribosomal dna sequences to the Balamuthia isolate from the deceased patient.
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ranking = 0.1652608757392
keywords = encephalitis
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4/9. balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent patient: an unusual clinical course and a favorable outcome.

    balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis is a rare but often fatal infection; only 2 survivors have been reported to date worldwide. We report the case of an apparently immunocompetent patient (72-year-old woman) who developed several episodes of seizures without prior history of respiratory or skin infections. magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed 2 ring-enhancing lesions, one in the right precentral region and the other in the left posterotemporal region. Open biopsy revealed Balamuthia encephalitis. The patient was treated with combination antibiotics (pentamidine, 300 mg intravenously once a day; sulfadiazine, 1.5 g 4 times a day; fluconazole, 400 mg once a day; and clarithromycin, 500 mg 3 times a day) and was discharged home. There have been no significant neurological sequelae at this writing (6 months after biopsy). We present this case with unusual clinical course to raise awareness of this infectious disease, which may have a more favorable outcome if diagnosed and treated in its early states.
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ranking = 1.0275434792899
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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5/9. naegleria fowleri hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis: report of two fatalities in children.

    Two cases of hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis secondary to naegleria fowleri infection confirmed by postmortem analysis are described. The first patient is a 5-year-old boy who presented with a severe headache, neck stiffness, and lethargy. His neurologic examination was significant for somnolence and nuchal rigidity. cerebrospinal fluid studies and structural neuroimaging were consistent with hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis. Another 5-year-old boy presented to a different institution 2 miles away in the same week with similar complaints. Both patients declined rapidly and expired within 48 hours of admission secondary to transtentorial herniation caused by the mass effect of inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage with displacement of the brain stem. Histopathologic and immunochemistry analysis of brain tissue revealed the presence of Naegleria trophozoites in both cases.
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ranking = 1.2
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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6/9. balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis: the first case in southeast asia.

    We present a case of 23-year-old man with acute meningoencephalitis, accompanied by inflammation of a nasal ulcer. He had been healthy until six months prior to admission to the hospital when he had a motorcycle accident. A star-shaped wound at his nose was incurred after falling into a swamp. A computed tomogram of the brain showed two nonenhancing hypodense lesions at the left caudate nucleus and the right parietal lobe, ependymitis and leptomeningeal enhancement. A skin biopsy showed chronic noncaseous granulomatous inflammation without demonstrated microorganisms. The patient did not respond to the empirical treatment with cloxacillin, ceftriaxone, and amphotericin b, and eventually died on the thirteenth day of hospitalization. At autopsy, hematoxylin and eosin-stained brain sections showed a chronic necrotizing inflammation with numerous amebic trophozoites and rare cysts. Definitive identification of balamuthia mandrillaris was made by fluorescent immunohistochemical analysis. There were 10 naegleria fowleri primary amebic meningoencephalitis, eight acanthamoeba granulomatous amebic encephalitis, and three acanthamoeba meningitis in thailand. To our knowledge, this case is the first reported case of B. mandrillaris in Southeast asia.
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ranking = 1.2275434792899
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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7/9. September 2004: a 6-year-old girl with headache and stiff neck.

    Free-living amebas in the genera Naegleria, acanthamoeba and Balamuthia are known to cause CNS infections. Here we report a case of fatal granulomatous amebic meningoencephalitis (GAE) caused by balamuthia mandrillaris in a 6-year-old previously healthy girl who presented with headache and stiff neck. She was treated medically for brain abscess after a CT scan identified a ring-enhancing lesion in the right temporo-parietal area. A brain biopsy showed necrosis and granulomatous inflammation. Subsequently, multiple new lesions appeared in the brain bilaterally. A second brain biopsy revealed viable amebic trophozoites that were most abundant in perivascular spaces, accompanied by neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils. Immunofluorescence study confirmed the amoeba as balamuthia mandrillaris. This case demonstrates that making diagnosis of GAE pre-mortem requires a high index of suspicion. Amebic infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of any granulomatous lesion in CNS; and careful search for amebic parasites should be carried out especially when necrosis predominates in the pathological material.
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ranking = 0.2
keywords = meningoencephalitis, encephalitis
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8/9. Fatal case of naegleria fowleri meningo-encephalitis in an infant: case report.

    Primary amoebic meningo-encephalitis (PAM) is extremely rare and is caused by naegleria fowleri. It is ?commonly seen in older children who swim in water contaminated with Naegleria species. It is very rare to contract the illness by any other means. We report a case of PAM in an infant aged 6 months. To the best of our knowledge, only one other case of PAM in an infant has been reported from india. A high index of suspicion is required in infants who manifest similarly to pyogenic meningitis but whose CSF shows no bacterial organisms so that a wet mount of a CSF sample can be done for early detection of naegleria fowleri infection and appropriate intervention.
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ranking = 0.13771739644933
keywords = encephalitis
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9/9. acanthamoeba encephalitis in patient with systemic lupus, india.

    We report a fatal case of encephalitis caused by acanthamoeba in a 24-year-old woman from india with systemic lupus erythematosus. Diagnosis was made by identification of amebas in brain sections by immunofluorescence analysis and confirmed by demonstrating acanthamoeba mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene dna in brain tissue sections.
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ranking = 0.13771739644933
keywords = encephalitis
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