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1/47. Cerebellar hemorrhage caused by dural arteriovenous fistula: a review of five cases.

    OBJECT: In this study the authors performed a retrospective analysis of five cases in which the patients (three women and two men) were treated for intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) associated with cerebellar hemorrhage. On the basis of their findings, the authors evaluated the characteristics of this unusual symptom. methods: The dural AVFs were located in the right cavernous sinus in one patient, the left transverse-sigmoid sinus in three patients, and the right superior petrosal sinus (SPS) in one patient. All patients presented with severe headache and/or loss of consciousness. Computerized tomography scans revealed a small cerebellar hemorrhage near the fourth ventricle and hydrocephalus in four cases, and a massive hemispheric cerebellar hemorrhage in the remaining case. The four patients with small hemorrhages underwent ventriculostomy and endovascular treatment; all recovered. The patient suffering from a massive hemorrhage because of a dural AVF in the SPS was treated by suboccipital craniectomy, hematoma evacuation, and removal of the vascular anomaly. This patient remains in a persistent vegetative state. In four cases, results of angiography demonstrated retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage through the SPS to the anastomotic lateral mesencephalic vein (ALMV) and/or to the vein of the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle (VLR4V). Retrograde leptomeningeal venous drainage to the ALMV and/or VLR4V was responsible for cerebellar hemorrhage in these cases. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, it is important to consider dural AVF in cases in which there is even a small hemorrhage near the fourth ventricle accompanied by intraventricular perforation and a decreased level of consciousness.
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keywords = ventricle
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2/47. Fatal progression of posttraumatic dural arteriovenous fistulas refractory to multimodal therapy. Case report.

    The authors report the case of a man who suffered from progressive, disseminated posttraumatic dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) resulting in death, despite aggressive endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatment. This 31-year-old man was struck on the head while playing basketball. Two weeks later a soft, pulsatile mass developed at his vertex, and the man began to experience pulsatile tinnitus and progressive headaches. magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent angiography revealed multiple AVFs in the scalp, calvaria, and dura, with drainage into the superior sagittal sinus. The patient was treated initially with transarterial embolization in five stages, followed by vertex craniotomy and surgical resection of the AVFs. However, multiple additional DAVFs developed over the bilateral convexities, the falx, and the tentorium. Subsequent treatment entailed 15 stages of transarterial embolization; seven stages of transvenous embolization, including complete occlusion of the sagittal sinus and partial occlusion of the straight sinus; three stages of stereotactic radiosurgery; and a second craniotomy with aggressive disconnection of the DAVFs. Unfortunately, the fistulas continued to progress, resulting in diffuse venous hypertension, multiple intracerebral hemorrhages in both hemispheres, and, ultimately, death nearly 5 years after the initial trauma. Endovascular, surgical, and radiosurgical treatments are successful in curing most patients with DAVFs. The failure of multimodal therapy and the fulminant progression and disseminated nature of this patient's disease are unique.
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ranking = 4.0471176954733
keywords = cerebral
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3/47. Dural arteriovenous fistulae at the foramen magnum.

    Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) affect predominantly levels of the lower thoracic and lumbar segments; only 13 cases have been reported of DAVF at the foramen magnum. We present three surgically treated patients with DAVF at the foramen magnum. In none of our three patients could the site of the arteriovenous fistula be suspected from the clinical presentation. The clinical course varied from acutely developing signs and symptoms to a 10-year history of very slowly progressing symptoms. After neuroradiological diagnosis the patients were operated on direct microsurgical disconnection of the arteriovenous shunt via an enlargement of the foramen magnum and a hemilaminectomy of C1. DAVF at the foramen magnum may thus present with slowly to acutely progressing clinical symptoms and signs. Spinal angiographic examination should include the level of the foramen magnum if standard spinal angiography of thoracic, lumbar, and sacral segments is negative in suspected spinal DAVF since the nidus of the shunt can be situated remote from the level of neurological disorder. DAVF at the foramen magnum can be treated very effectively and with minimal surgical trauma by direct microsurgical disconnection of the shunt. This surgical procedure is indicated if embolization with glue is not possible or is unsuccessful.
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ranking = 49.208905349794
keywords = foramen
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4/47. Persistent primitive olfactory artery: diagnosis with MR angiography.

    We present a case of persistent primitive olfactory artery (PPOA) diagnosed with the aid of magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. The proximal right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) had an extremely long anteroinferomedial course along the ipsilateral olfactory tract, made a hairpin turn posterosuperiorly, and became a normal distal ACA. After reviewing the literature, we considered the proximal segment of this anomalous ACA to be a PPOA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with this anomalous ACA diagnosed with MR angiography.
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ranking = 4.0471176954733
keywords = cerebral
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5/47. Transvenous embolization of carotid cavernous fistulas via the superior ophthalmic vein.

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of choice for symptomatic carotid-cavernous and cavernous-dural fistulas is neuroradiologic intervention via the femoral artery. Owing to the location of the fistula and/or to anatomic variations, a direct surgical approach via the superior ophthalmic vein may be necessary for embolization. methods: Three patients presented with exophthalmos, episcleral venous congestion, chemosis, restricted eye movement, and secondary glaucoma. One patient had visual impairment and scotoma due to compression of the optic nerve by the fistula. The tentative diagnosis of an arteriovenous fistula was confirmed in two cases by color Doppler imaging and in all three cases with cerebral arterial angiography (two carotid-cavernous fistulas, one cavernous-dural fistula). After an unsuccessful transarterial attempt, embolization via the superior ophthalmic vein was chosen. RESULTS: In all three patients the preparation of the superior ophthalmic vein was performed without any complications. In two cases the fistula could be embolized completely with platinum coils. In one patient the placement of the microcatheter was impossible, because of an abnormal vascular pattern. Later on the fistula was successfully embolized by an approach via the femoral vein. All three patients had complete resolution of symptoms. There were no recurrences. CONCLUSION: Embolization of carotid-cavernous and cavernous-dural fistulas by a surgical approach via the superior ophthalmic vein represents safe and effective treatment when standard transarterial access is impossible. The cooperation of an orbital surgeon and an invasive neuroradiologist can be of benefit for this rare group of patients.
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ranking = 4.0471176954733
keywords = cerebral
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6/47. Venous malformation serving as the draining vein of an adjoining arteriovenous malformation. Case report and review of the literature.

    BACKGROUND: Widely accepted pathologic classification of venous malformations includes discrete venous, arteriovenous, capillary, and cavernous malformations, each with distinct pathological criteria for definition. Several authors have described mixed or transitional vascular malformations with pathological features of more than one type of malformation within the same lesion. We present a rare case of a venous malformation associated with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM). CASE DESCRIPTION: A 37-year-old woman presented with a loss of consciousness. Computed tomography showed an enlarged vein running along the lateral wall of the right lateral ventricle. A cerebral angiogram demonstrated an AVM and a venous malformation in the right hemisphere; the AVM and the venous malformation were located in proximity to each other with the AVM using the venous malformation as its draining vein. In this case, where an AVM used the venous malformation as the draining vein, only the AVM was treated by proton-beam radiosurgery. Follow-up magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated complete obliteration of the AVM with the venous malformation remaining unchanged. CONCLUSION: Arteriovenous shunting would have disturbed venous drainage resulting in the development of the venous malformation. Thus, in addition to demonstrating a rare coexistence of AVM and venous malformation, this case also offers a new insight into the pathogenesis of these vascular malformations.
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ranking = 4.3804510288066
keywords = cerebral, ventricle
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7/47. Venous cerebral infarction due to simultaneous occurrence of dural arteriovenous fistula and developmental venous anomaly.

    A case of a left frontal lobe infarction in a 31-year-old male patient is presented. This patient had bilateral frontal dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) and a left frontal developmental venous anomaly (DVA). It is suggested that the simultaneous occurrence of these vascular anomalies was the cause of his infarction.
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ranking = 16.188470781893
keywords = cerebral
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8/47. Developmental deep venous system anomaly associated with congenital malformation of the brain.

    We report a rare case of developmental deep venous system anomaly. The great vein of Galen and the straight sinus were absent. Both internal cerebral veins and the basal veins of Rosenthal drained into a large frontal interhemispheric falcine vein, which eventually drained into the superior sagittal sinus. The patient also had an associated neuronal migration anomaly.
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ranking = 4.0471176954733
keywords = cerebral
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9/47. The juxtaposition of a capillary telangiectasia, cavernous malformation, and developmental venous anomaly in the brainstem of a single patient: case report.

    OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: Capillary telangiectasias, cavernous malformations, and developmental venous anomalies are all vascular malformations that occur on the capillary-venous side of the cerebral circulation. The associations of capillary telangiectasias with venous malformations, cavernous malformations with venous malformations, and capillary telangiectasias with cavernous malformations have all been described; however, the association of all three lesions in a single patient is extremely rare. CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 52 year-old Caucasian woman presented to our clinic with an extended history of confusion, distorted visual perceptions, photophobia, neck pain, swallowing problems, and poor balance. The patient's examination was remarkable for difficulty concentrating, mild rotatory nystagmus, subtle decreased sensation over the left side of the face and body, and brisk reflexes. review of the patient's magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a cavernous malformation, a capillary telangiectasia, and a developmental venous anomaly located adjacent to one another in the brainstem. INTERVENTION: Given the patient's complex constellation of symptoms and relatively mild neurological findings, it was difficult to ascribe any one of them to a specific vascular malformation. Conservative management of this patient's vascular malformations was decided upon. CONCLUSION: Juxtaposition of these three different vascular lesions in the brainstem of an otherwise normal individual suggests a relationship among them. Although there are several theories that link similar associations through physiological mechanisms such as venous hypertension, we propose that a developmental event disrupting local capillary-venous pattern formation is a plausible alternative.
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ranking = 4.0471176954733
keywords = cerebral
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10/47. Dural arteriovenous fistulae: noninvasive diagnosis with dynamic MR digital subtraction angiography.

    MR digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a new diagnostic tool capable of producing dynamic images of the cerebral circulation with the injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine into a peripheral vein. Previous reports have concentrated on its potential as a noninvasive technique for the study of pial arteriovenous malformations. In this report, we present our early findings with MR DSA in the evaluation of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae.
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ranking = 4.0471176954733
keywords = cerebral
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