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1/6. Fetal brain infection with human parvovirus B19.

    Intrauterine parvovirus B19 infection is known to be one of the causes of hydrops fetalis. However, there are few reports of the pathologic changes in the central nervous system. Postmortem examination of a fetus revealed multinucleated giant cells of macrophage/microglia lineage and many small calcifications around the vessels, predominantly in the cerebral white matter. parvovirus B19 genome dna was detected in the nucleus of the multinucleated giant cells and solitary endothelial cells by polymerase chain reaction amplification and in situ polymerase chain reaction methods. capsid antigen was also demonstrated in the cytoplasm of the endothelial cells by immunofluorescent assay. Thus, intrauterine B19 parvovirus infection could be associated with marked neuropathologic changes in the fetal brain at the midembryonal period. Neurologic follow-up of complications may be necessary for children who survive the intrauterine infection.
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2/6. Congenital varicella syndrome: a rare case of central nervous system involvement without dermatological features.

    An unusual case of congenital varicella syndrome with significant central nervous system involvement, but without dermatological features at birth is described. The mother contracted chicken pox at 15 weeks' gestation. Congenital varicella syndrome involves multiple systems, but rarely without skin lesions identifiable at birth. Although varicella infection in pregnant women is an uncommon complication, the fetal embryopathy that may result can be devastating. Antenatal diagnosis of fetal embryopathy during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy should be established by amniocentesis or cordocentesis when a mother presents in the first trimester with chicken pox, and appropriate risk counselling provided.
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keywords = nervous system
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3/6. Epstein-Barr virus myeloradiculitis and encephalomyeloradiculitis.

    We provide a comprehensive clinical, radiological and virological analysis of four patients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of the nervous system. One patient developed acute myeloradiculitis, one had acute encephalomyeloradiculitis, one had acute meningoencephalomyeloradiculitis and one had a subacute meningomyeloradiculitis. The ability of EBV to affect multiple parts of the entire neuraxis from meninges and brain to the spinal cord and peripheral nerves was evidenced by combinations of stiff neck and mental status changes, as well as patterns of weakness and sensory loss due to transverse myelitis or peripheral nerve disease. The CSF of all four patients contained a pleocytosis, predominantly mononuclear with elevated levels of protein, but a normal glucose level. In the two patients with acute myeloradiculitis and subacute meningomyeloradiculitis, the MRI revealed an increased signal in the spinal cord and lumbosacral roots, but in the two patients with acute encephalomyeloradiculitis and acute meningoencephalomyeloradiculitis, the brain and spinal cord MRIs were normal. In all four patients, EBV dna, but not cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) dna, was found in the CSF. The antibody pattern in serum was consistent with recent infection, and both EBV immunoglobulin (Ig) M and IgG antibodies, but not antibodies to HSV, VZV or CMV, were found in the CSF. Finally, there were reduced serum/CSF ratios of antibody to EBV, but not to total IgG or albumin, consistent with intrathecal antibody synthesis. None of the four patients died and none had brain swelling or focal changes according to brain MRI. Residual neurological deficits were evident. The two patients with acute myeloradiculitis and acute meningomyeloradiculitis had residual lower extremity weakness, and one of these patients later developed optic neuritis. The patient with acute encephalomyeloradiculitis had a moderate flaccid paraparesis, and the patient with subacute meningomyeloradiculitis was left with sensory loss in the feet. Compared with neurological disease caused by other herpes viruses, the clinical features of acute EBV myeloradiculitis, encephalomyeloradiculitis, encephalomyeloradiculitis and subacute meningomyeloradiculitis are distinctive. Of the eight human herpesviruses, EBV and VZV produce the most protean neurological syndromes. The mechanism by which EBV produces neurological disease is unknown. More correlative pathological, virological and immunological studies are needed in EBV-associated neurological disease.
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keywords = nervous system
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4/6. rotavirus gastroenteritis and central nervous system (CNS) infection: characterization of the VP7 and VP4 genes of rotavirus strains isolated from paired fecal and cerebrospinal fluid samples from a child with CNS disease.

    rotavirus rna was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a child with central nervous system disease symptoms associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. The rotavirus isolates from the fecal and CSF samples were genotyped as G1P[8]. sequence analysis of the VP7 and VP4 proteins derived from the fecal and CSF samples were remarkably similar to each other and to G1P[8] rotavirus strains commonly circulating in the community and associated with gastroenteritis.
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keywords = nervous system
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5/6. Diagnostic significance of intrathecally produced herpes simplex and varizella-zoster virus-specific antibodies in central nervous system infections.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The optimal strategy for the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varizella-zoster virus (VZV) disease of the central nervous system is the detection of viral dna by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the examination of intrathecal production of specific antibodies. However, in acute neurological disease caused by either HSV or VZV, dual intrathecal synthesis of HSV-1, 2- as well as VZV-specific antibodies may be detectable and thus can hamper accurate aetiological diagnosis. This paper illustrates such equivocal findings in two case reports, investigates their frequency and discusses the possible reasons. methods: Consecutive CSF/serum pairs of two patients with central nervous system (CNS) disease were tested by HSV-1-, HSV-2-, and VZV-specific PCR and by different serological assays for detection of neurotropic viruses and bacteria. Additionally, the results of microbiological investigations of 1'155 CSF/serum samples were retrospectively analyzed for coincident intrathecal antibody synthesis against HSV-1, 2 and VZV. RESULTS: Although only HSV-1 and VZV-specific dna was detectable in the CSF of two patients with encephalitis and chronic meningitis, respectively, increasing intrathecal antibody production against both virus species could be demonstrated. Retrospective analysis of 1155 CSF/serum pairs revealed 55 (4.8%) pairs with evidence for intrathecally produced antibodies against either HSV-1, 2 (30/55) or VZV (14/55). Eleven of these 55 (20%) pairs showed intrathecal antibody-production against both virus species. CONCLUSIONS: patients with CNS infection with HSV and VZV can be diagnosed by detecting intrathecally produced virus-specific antibodies, in addition to virus-specific PCR. However, in an appreciable proportion of patients a correct diagnosis is hampered by coincidentally detected antibodies in CSF against both virus species. Possible reasons for these equivocal findings are given.
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ranking = 6
keywords = nervous system
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6/6. Dengue fever with papilledema: a case of dengue-3 virus infection in central nervous system.

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neurological manifestations of dengue fever are rarely reported during acute illness and clinical presentation commonly observed is of acute encephalitis or one of the post-infectious immune mediated manifestations. We describe a case of dengue fever having mild encephalopathy and papilledema at presentation. CASE REPORT: Twenty-year-old female presented with fever, headache and vomiting. On examination she did not have classical signs of dengue fever and was found to have bilateral papilledema on fundus examination. Detailed work-up did not reveal any other cause of papilledema. diagnosis of dengue fever was established by blood IgM antibody test on day 7 of illness. Retrospective analysis of CSF (drawn on day 5 of illness) by RT-PCR assay showed a characteristic band of dengue-3 virus. papilledema was transient and subsided following symptomatic treatment. The patient recovered from acute illness and follow-up was unremarkable. CONCLUSION: Especially in dengue endemic areas, in the patients having acute febrile illness with subtle signs and symptoms suggestive of CNS involvement, dengue virus infection should also be ruled out early in the clinical course.
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ranking = 4
keywords = nervous system
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