Cases reported "Cerebellar Ataxia"

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1/116. cerebellar ataxia following whooping cough.

    bordetella pertussis (BP), the agent of whooping cough, has not been recognized so far as a cause of permanent cerebellar ataxia in human. We describe three patients who developed a disabling and permanent cerebellar syndrome soon after whooping cough. In two patients, diagnosis of BP infection was confirmed by culture of nasopharyngeal secretions. The infection occurred between the age of 13 and 15 years, with neurological symptoms beginning after a delay varying from 3 weeks to 3 months. In our three patients, the cerebellar syndrome was characterized by dysmetria of ocular saccades, scanning speech and ataxic gait. Brain MRI demonstrated a pancerebellar atrophy. The pathogenesis of this cerebellar degeneration is not established. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to lymphocytosis-promoting factor (LPF), one of the exotoxins from BP. The mechanism of this toxicity might be a marked increase in the cellular levels of 3',5'cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Since whooping cough is a bacterial exotoxin-mediated disease, this is the first report of a cerebellar syndrome triggered by a bacterial exotoxin.
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2/116. A new CACNA1A gene mutation in acetazolamide-responsive familial hemiplegic migraine and ataxia.

    OBJECTIVE: To search for mutations in the calcium channel gene CACNA1A and to study the genotype-phenotype correlation in a family with a severe familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) phenotype and a slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. BACKGROUND: CACNA1A gene mutations on chromosome 19 are involved in approximately 50% of FHM families. The association of FHM and cerebellar ataxia has been reported in a small number of FHM families, all linked to chromosome 19. methods: The proband, in addition to typical hemiplegic migraine attacks, experienced severe episodes during which hemiplegia was associated with acutely altered consciousness and fever lasting several days. She, as well as her affected sister, developed a permanent, late-onset cerebellar ataxia and cerebellar atrophy evident on MRI. Linkage analysis was performed and the whole CACNA1A gene, 47 exon-intron boundaries, was analyzed by double gradient-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DG-DGGE). RESULTS: Genetic studies suggested linkage to chromosome 19p13, and DG-DGGE analysis detected a heteroduplex fragment in exon 13 of the CACNA1A gene. By direct sequencing, a G-to-A substitution resulting in an arginine to glutamine change at codon 583 in the second putative voltage sensor domain of the channel alpha1A-subunit, was identified, possibly representing the disease-causing mutation. The proband and her affected sister were treated with acetazolamide, reporting freedom from new FHM attacks but no benefit in the progression of ataxia. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of episodic dysfunction and permanent deficit could depend on the variety of functions of calcium channels and their distribution in the nervous system.
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3/116. Palatal tremor, progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, and cerebellar ataxia: a case report and review of literature of palatal tremors in neurodegenerative disease.

    We describe a patient with an unusual clinical presentation of progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, cerebellar ataxia, and palatal tremor (PT) resulting from an unknown etiology. magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nuclei, brain stem atrophy, and marked cerebellar atrophy. This combination of progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, cerebellar ataxia, and PT has never been reported in the literature. We have also reviewed the literature of PT secondary to neurodegenerative causes. In a total of 23 patients, the common causes are sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA; 22%), Alexander's disease (22%), unknown etiology (43.4%), and occasionally progressive supranuclear palsy (4.3%) and spinocerebellar degeneration (4.3%). Most patients present with progressive cerebellar ataxia and approximately two thirds of them have rhythmic tremors elsewhere. Ear clicks are observed in 13% and evidence of hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus in 25% of the patients. The common neurodegenerative causes of PT are OPCA/multiple system atrophy, Alexander's disease, and, in most of them, the result of an unknown cause.
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4/116. syndrome of progressive ataxia and palatal myoclonus: a case report.

    A 46-year old man presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia for 5 years. physical examination revealed palatal and tongue myoclonus, cerebellar gait, limb ataxia and spasticity of the lower extremities. The imaging studies including CT-scan and MRI of the brain revealed progressive pancerebellar atrophy and bilateral hypertrophic degeneration of inferior olives. The clinical course was slowly progressive. Various medications included anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines and antispasticity failed to abolish the abnormal palatal movement and ataxic syndrome. The syndrome of progressive ataxia and palatal myoclonus is a rare and unique neurodegenerative syndrome. The pathogenesis and treatment are still unknown.
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5/116. Ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome.

    We report on a Mexican girl who developed cerebellar ataxia at age 3 years and pancytopenia at age 13 years. Cerebral computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of severe cerebellar atrophy. Telangiectasias were not present; immunoglobulins and alpha-fetoprotein levels were normal. Cytogenetic studies showed no evidence of spontaneous chromosome aberrations, a normal rate of diepoxybutane (DEB) and mitomycin C (MMC)-induced chromosome aberrations, but an increased response to bleomycin. The phenotype support the diagnosis of ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome, although monosomy of chromosome 7 was not found in bone marrow. The cytogenetic studies suggest that this may be a chromosomal instability disorder.
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6/116. Hereditary cerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy and mental retardation.

    We present here 5 patients with hereditary cerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy and mental retardation as determined by clinical, pathological, and molecular studies. The most characteristic features of this disorder, in contrast to Friedreich's ataxia, were early onset of ataxic gait, mental retardation, and a marked atrophy of the cerebellum. sural nerve biopsy showed a reduction of myelinated fibers. The expansion of a GAA triplet repeat within the first intron of the frataxin gene, which causes Friedreich's ataxia, was not identified in any of the patients. Hereditary cerebellar ataxia with peripheral neuropathy and mental retardation represents a specific clinical entity that so far has only been described in japan.
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7/116. Frontal-executive dysfunction in early onset cerebellar ataxia of Holmes' type.

    We report the case of a 29-year-old male patient with cerebellar ataxia of Holmes' type. The combination of progressive cerebellar ataxia and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism is a rare distinctive syndrome which was first described by Holmes in 1907. early diagnosis is desirable because replacement of testosterone may allow normal sexual development. MRI showed severe combined superior vermian and cerebellar hemisphere atrophy. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing pointed to a more widespread cerebellar mediated functional CNS involvement in the earlier stages of this ataxic syndrome than previously described in mentally not retarded subjects.
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8/116. Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia - non progressive congenital ataxia: clinical and radiological findings in a pair of siblings.

    We describe the clinical and radiological findings of a pair of siblings with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and compare them with the literature. Both of them present pregnancies and deliveries uneventful and both presented some grade of hypotonia, ataxia, ocular motor abnormalities and mild motor delay and slurred speech. These siblings meet many of the criteria described in non-progressive congenital ataxia in which can occur familial cases with cerebellar atrophy, including vermis hypoplasia. As differential diagnosis we compare them with related syndromes and with Joubert's syndrome which main radiological finding on MRI is vermis hypoplasia associated with "molar tooth" appearance. The correct answer for these cases will only be possible by molecular genetics.
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9/116. cerebellar ataxia, anterior horn cell disease, learning difficulties, and dystonia: a new syndrome.

    The following case reports describe a new condition of cerebellar ataxia, anterior horn cell disease, dystonia, and learning difficulties. Four cases are described. The condition appears to be of autosomal recessive inheritance as the group is made up of two pairs of sisters. All cases were evident by 3 years of age. Anterior horn cell disease was of a type not previously described at this age in association with cerebellar ataxia. Further genetic studies suggest the condition is not allelic with spinal muscular atrophy having no evidence of deletion of the survival motor neurone gene.
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10/116. A new familial adult-onset leukodystrophy manifesting as cerebellar ataxia and dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Among hereditary leukodystrophies, a considerable number remain unclassified. patients AND RESULTS: We investigated the clinical course and histopathology of one patient in a family of adult-onset leukodystrophy with possible dominant inheritance. A 44-year-old man presented with cerebellar ataxia as the initial symptom, and later, dementia and hyperreflexia with ankle clonus developed. T2-weighted brain MRI showed brain atrophy and diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebral white matter and the brain stem. The patient's mother and older brother also had cerebellar ataxia and dementia, and his older brother had been diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. An older sister of our patient possibly had similar neurological symptoms of adult-onset. Our patient died of pneumonia 5 years after the onset of disease. The histopathological findings consisted mainly of patchily observed vacuolar changes in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter and the brain stem. The subcortical regions and the cortex were unaffected. It is suggested that the pathological changes began in the cerebellum, and later spread to the frontal lobe and the brain stem. In the occipital regions, the vacuolations were associated with accumulation of macrophages and astrocytosis, which implied that the vacuolations were of recent origin. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis in this patient is adult-onset leukodystrophy with possibly autosomal dominant inheritance. The clinicopathological features are different from those, of previously reported adult-onset leukodystrophies.
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