Cases reported "Cerebellar Ataxia"

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1/32. A new familial adult-onset leukodystrophy manifesting as cerebellar ataxia and dementia.

    BACKGROUND: Among hereditary leukodystrophies, a considerable number remain unclassified. patients AND RESULTS: We investigated the clinical course and histopathology of one patient in a family of adult-onset leukodystrophy with possible dominant inheritance. A 44-year-old man presented with cerebellar ataxia as the initial symptom, and later, dementia and hyperreflexia with ankle clonus developed. T2-weighted brain MRI showed brain atrophy and diffuse high signal intensity of the cerebral white matter and the brain stem. The patient's mother and older brother also had cerebellar ataxia and dementia, and his older brother had been diagnosed as having spinocerebellar degeneration. An older sister of our patient possibly had similar neurological symptoms of adult-onset. Our patient died of pneumonia 5 years after the onset of disease. The histopathological findings consisted mainly of patchily observed vacuolar changes in the cerebral and cerebellar white matter and the brain stem. The subcortical regions and the cortex were unaffected. It is suggested that the pathological changes began in the cerebellum, and later spread to the frontal lobe and the brain stem. In the occipital regions, the vacuolations were associated with accumulation of macrophages and astrocytosis, which implied that the vacuolations were of recent origin. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis in this patient is adult-onset leukodystrophy with possibly autosomal dominant inheritance. The clinicopathological features are different from those, of previously reported adult-onset leukodystrophies.
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2/32. Cerebellar stimulation in acute cerebellar ataxia.

    OBJECTIVES: To report follow-up studies of cerebellar stimulation in patients with acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA). methods: We studied two patients with ACA. One patient also had decreased deep sensations in the feet due to combined diseases such as diabetic polyneuropathy and lumbosacral radiculopathies. We applied the technique of electrical stimulation over the cerebellum which was reported previously (Ugawa et al., J Physiol 441 (1991a) 57). RESULTS: Conditioning stimulation over the cerebellum did not reduce the size of motor-evoked potentials to test magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex at conditioning-test intervals of 5, 6, and 7 ms in the acute stage in both patients. However, normal suppression was recognized in the recovery stage in both patients. CONCLUSIONS: This technique was useful for follow-up evaluation of cerebellar function in patients with ACA and was also useful for distinguishing cerebellar ataxia from sensory ataxia in a patient with combined diseases.
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3/32. stiff-person syndrome associated with cerebellar ataxia and high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody titer.

    glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is the main target of humoral autoimmunity in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and stiff-person syndrome. We reviewed the case of a 46-year-old woman who had cerebellar ataxia before getting stiff-person syndrome and IDDM with high anti-GAD autoantibody titers. This was a rare case in which there were both the clinical symptoms of stiff-person syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. In western blot analysis her serum reacted with 65-kDa proteins from rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord. autoantibodies to GAD may cause functional impairment of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons in the spinal cord as well as in the cerebellum.
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4/32. Motor weakness and cerebellar ataxia in Sjogren syndrome--identification of antineuronal antibody: a case report.

    We report here a combination of rare neurological manifestations of primary Sjogren syndrome (SS), such as motor-dominant motor weakness of peripheral origin, cerebellar ataxia and depression, in a Japanese female patient. An autoantibody in her serum and cerebrospinal fluid immunolabelled spinal motor neurons and cerebellar purkinje cells. On Western blot, this antibody reacted with a protein of 34 kDa from the extract of spinal cord, dorsal root ganglion, or cerebellar cortex, which might correspond to motor weakness and cerebellar ataxia, respectively. The absence of its reactivity to the liver tissue indicates that this autoantibody targets an antigen represented exclusively in the neural tissues. Although it remains to be proved how autoantibodies, sometimes associated with SS, are involved in the development of clinical pictures, some of them are present in the cerebrospinal fluid and exhibit an exclusive affinity to neural tissues, which indicates its plausible link to neurological manifestations. Recognition of these antineuronal antibodies in SS will potentially provide a chance to treat these patients by removing or inactivating the antibody.
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5/32. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions in a new cerebellar tremor/ataxia syndrome among fragile X carriers.

    A neurological syndrome involving progressive action tremor with ataxia, cognitive decline and generalized brain atrophy has been described recently in some adult males with pre-mutation alleles of the fragile x syndrome (FXS) fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1). Neurohistological studies have now been performed on the brains of four elderly premutation carriers, not reported previously, who displayed the neurological phenotype. Eosinophilic, intranuclear inclusions were present in both neuronal and astrocytic nuclei of the cortex in all four individuals. Systematic analysis of the brains of two of these carriers demonstrated the presence of the intranuclear inclusions throughout the cerebrum and brainstem, being most numerous in the hippocampal formation. The cerebellum displayed marked dropout of purkinje cells, Purkinje axonal torpedoes and Bergmann gliosis. Intranuclear inclusions were absent from purkinje cells, although they were present in a small number of neurones in the dentate nucleus and diffusely in cerebellar astrocytes. The presence of inclusions in the brains of all four FXS carriers with the neurological findings provides further support for a unique clinical entity associated with pre-mutation FMR1 alleles. The origin of the inclusions is unknown, although elevated FMR1 mRNA levels in these pre-mutation carriers may lead to the neuropathological changes.
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6/32. The human basis pontis: motor syndromes and topographic organization.

    Clinical-anatomic correlations were performed in 25 patients with focal infarcts in the basilar pons to determine whether pontine lacunar syndromes conform to discrete clinical entities, and whether there is topographic organization of the motor system within the human basis pontis. Twelve clinical signs were scored on a 6-point scale, neuroimaging lesions were mapped and defined with statistical certainty, and structure-function correlation was performed to develop a topographic map of motor function. Clinical findings ranged from major devastation following extensive lesions (pure motor hemiplegia) to incomplete basilar pontine syndrome and restricted deficits after small focal lesions (ataxic hemiparesis, dysarthria-clumsy hand syndrome, dysarthria-dysmetria and dysarthria-facial paresis). The syndromes are not absolutely discrete, and are distinguished from each other by the relative degree of involvement of each clinical feature. Structure-function correlations indicate that strength is conveyed by the corticofugal fibres destined for the spinal cord, whereas dysmetria results from lesions involving the neurons of the basilar pons that link the ipsilateral cerebral cortex with the contralateral cerebellar hemisphere. Facial movement and articulation are localized to rostral and medial basilar pons; hand coordination is medial and ventral in rostral and mid-pons; and arm function is represented ventral and lateral to the hand. Leg coordination is in the caudal half of the pons, with lateral predominance. Swallowing is dependent upon the integrity of a number of regions in the rostral pons. gait is in medial and lateral locations throughout the rostral- caudal extent of the pons. Dysmetria ipsilateral to the lesion constitutes a disconnection syndrome, as it occurs when the hemipontine lesion is extensive and interrupts pontocerebellar fibres traversing from the opposite, intact side of the pons. The heterogeneity of manifestations reflects the well-organized topography of motor function in the human basis pontis, in agreement with the anatomic organization of the motor corticopontine projections in the monkey. Higher order impairments including motor neglect, paraphasic errors and pathological laughter result from rostral and medial pontine lesions, and may result from disruption of the pontine component of associative corticopontocerebellar circuits.
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7/32. Ipsidirectional impairment of prism adaptation after unilateral lesion of anterior cerebellum.

    In a patient with damage of the left cerebellar cortex (SCA territory), the authors tested four combinations of exposure to optical shift (leftward prisms, right hand; rightward prisms, right hand; leftward prisms, left (ataxic) hand; rightward prisms, left (ataxic) hand). He adapted to rightward but not leftward prisms, independent of which hand was used during exposure. This suggests a role of anterior cerebellar cortex in the computation or compensation of ipsidirectional visual error.
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8/32. Novel representation of astasia associated with posterior cingulate infarction.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The representation elicited in the cingulate motor area has been demonstrated in animals, but remains unclear in humans. In particular, the representation and pathogenic mechanisms of the posterior cingulate cortex are poorly understood, especially in humans. We describe a case of posterior cingulate infarction associated with contralateral astasia. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 67-year-old right-handed man with a 10-year history of hypertension suddenly presented with right-sided pulsion on attempting to stand or sit. On the following day, he could not maintain a sitting position. The patient immediately fell to the floor because of instability, characterized by marked right-sided pulsion despite no muscle weakness, sensorial deficits, or cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resolution imaging of the brain showed abnormal intensity in the posterior parts of the cingulate, with no other clinically significant lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Because the cingulate motor area is connected to the vestibulocerebellar system through the thalamic nuclei, disruption of this connection by posterior cingulate infarction may result in astasia.
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9/32. Multi-joint reaching movements and eye-hand tracking in cerebellar incoordination: investigation of a patient with complete loss of purkinje cells.

    Performance on an eye-hand tracking task and a multi-joint reaching movement to a visual target was studied in a patient with stable cerebellar ataxia and in control subjects. The patient subsequently died and a full neuropathological examination was performed. The neuropathological findings were similar to those seen in patients with paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, but no tumor was found at autopsy eight years after onset of the patient's cerebellar syndrome. A severe cerebellar cortical degeneration with complete Purkinje cell loss was demonstrated, whereas cerebellar nuclei and brainstem structures showed no neuronal loss. Tracking performance by the patient was characterized by abnormally large numbers of high velocity movements and hand direction reversals, and by excessive lagging of the hand behind the target in time. In the multi-joint reaching movement, the patient showed a delay in movement onset at the elbow joint compared to movement onset at the shoulder joint. The velocity profile of the movement at the shoulder joint was abnormal. The duration of the acceleration phase was poorly correlated with both peak angular velocity and the duration of the deceleration phase. One of the most striking findings was the inability of the patient to consistently produce the same movement direction from trial to trial while reaching to the same target. Our data suggests that the cerebellar cortex is involved in multiple aspects of motor control including visuomotor integration mechanisms.
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10/32. CT and MR imaging of acute cerebellar ataxia.

    An adult female showed mild cerebellar ataxia and CSF pleocytosis following an acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, and was diagnosed as having acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA). CT and MR appearances in the acute stage revealed moderate swelling of the cerebellum and bilaterally increased signal intensity in the cerebellar cortex.
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