Cases reported "Cerebellar Ataxia"

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11/26. cerebellar ataxia. Clinical and CT findings in two cases of rare etiology.

    Two low density lesions of the cerebellum which did not occupy space are reported. The neuropathological diagnosis of one case was subacute leucencephalitis. In the other case, the diagnosis of a Pelizaeus-Merzbacher's disease is discussed, taking into consideration the clinical observation, development and the CT findings.
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ranking = 1
keywords = encephalitis
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12/26. A fatal case of meningoencephalitis due to a free-living amoeba of uncertain identity--probably acanthamoeba sp.

    There are 2 main types of meningoencephalitis caused by free-living amoebae. The first is a well-defined acutely fatal disease resembling fulminating bacterial meningitis. It is caused by the single species naegleria fowleri. The second is a more poorly defined disease that runs a subacute or chronic course and is characterized by focal granulomatous lesions in the brain. The causative organisms are probably acanthamoeba sp. in most cases, but it is possible that other genera may be involved. The first case of the subacute form of the disease to be recognized in australia is described. A 2 1/2-yr-old, previously well girl presented with ataxia and lower motor neurone paralyses. The cerebrospinal fluid was pleocytic and she was thought to be suffering from a relatively minor viral brain-stem encephalitis. Her symptoms persisted in a peculiarly fluctuating way for 30 d when she suddenly collapsed and died from an intracranial haemorrhage. Necropsy showed focal granulomatous lesions associated with necrotizing vasculitis in the basal regions of the brain. The lesions contained well preserved free-living amoebae which were morphologically different from N. fowleri and most closely resembled acanthamoeba sp. The ultrastructure of the organisms was particularly well preserved and is described in some detail. Immunohistological studies also excluded N. fowleri but were inconclusive for acanthamoeba or other genera of free-living amoebae. Difficulties with the diagnosis and treatment of this disease are discussed and some practical suggestions are made.
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ranking = 6.3268855367794
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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13/26. Cerebellar lesion in myoclonic encephalopathy of infants.

    The syndrome of opsoclonus and polymyoclonus developed in an infant who had acute meningoencephalitis with ataxia. A low-density cerebellar lesion was noted by computed tomography, subsequently resolving with residual cerebellar atrophy. The infant recovered completely, except for a mild intention tremor. This was the first documentation, to our knowledge, of an acute cerebellar lesion in this syndrome.
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ranking = 1.0653771073559
keywords = encephalitis, meningoencephalitis
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14/26. Chronic brainstem encephalitis with mental symptoms and ataxia: report of three cases with necropsy.

    Three necropsied cases of chronic, sporadic brainstem encephalitis of unknown aetiology are presented. Since their outstanding symptoms were dementia and ataxia of a progressive nature, a noninflammatory disease of the central nervous system was suspected. Neuropathological studies showed chronic inflammatory changes mainly in the brainstem without the presence of inclusion bodies or viral particles. Compared to cases previously reported as brainstem encephalitis, the clinical and pathological findings observed in these cases have rather peculiar characteristics.
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ranking = 6
keywords = encephalitis
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15/26. leukemic infiltration of the cerebellum in acute myelomonocytic leukemia.

    A 31-year-old woman with acute myelomonocytic leukemia presented with meningeal signs and a cerebellar mass attributed to leukemic infiltration. The mass disappeared with radiation therapy and intraventricular chemotherapy, but the patient subsequently suffered several spinal nerve root recurrences, disseminated herpes zoster, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. At autopsy, there was no trace of the meningeal leukemia or cerebellar infiltrate. This case illustrates several of the neurologic complications of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, and raises the question whether patients with the myelomonocytic form of this disease might benefit from prophylactic central nervous system treatment.
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ranking = 0.019305144892041
keywords = zoster
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16/26. Pre-eruptive varicella cerebellitis confirmed by PCR.

    The diagnosis of pre-eruptive varicella cerebellitis is usually based on a history of exposure and thus depends on a subjective clinical assessment. The confirmation of the diagnosis has traditionally depended on the development of skin manifestations of varicella and on varicella-zoster antibody seroconversion. Confirming the diagnosis of pre-eruptive cerebellar ataxia or encephalitis early in the course of a viral infection may save the patient unnecessary tests, procedures, or attempts at therapeutic intervention. A patient is reported in whom, after clinically suspecting a diagnosis of pre-eruptive varicella cerebellitis, the diagnosis was confirmed by performing polymerase chain reaction analysis of varicella-zoster virus dna in peripheral blood leukocytes and cerebrospinal fluid. The patient developed skin manifestations of varicella 5 days after the onset of neurologic symptoms and 15 days after known exposure. In some patients with preeruptive varicella cerebellitis, polymerase chain reaction may be extremely useful for rapid confirmation of the diagnosis.
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ranking = 6.9704416022353
keywords = encephalitis, varicella, zoster
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17/26. Pre-eruptive neurologic manifestations associated with multiple cerebral infarcts in varicella.

    A boy, 4 years, 9 months of age, presented with acute hemiplegia, lethargy, ataxia, and dysarthria 24 hours prior to the eruption of typical varicella exanthem. magnetic resonance imaging findings were typical of multiple cerebral ischemic infarcts. It is suggested that during the period of secondary viremia varicella zoster virus invaded the cerebral blood vessels causing vasculopathy and cerebrovascular infarcts.
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ranking = 3.2548494971382
keywords = varicella, zoster
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18/26. Unilateral ataxia following herpes zoster of spinal C4 segment.

    Focal lesions of central nervous system are extremely rare following cutaneous herpes zoster. A 55 year old male developed cerebellar speech, right sided ataxia and intention tremor, three weeks after herpes zoster of right spinal C4 segment. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a focal vascular lesion in the midbrain suggestive of granulomatous angiitis which can cause focal neurological defect after herpes zoster.
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ranking = 0.13513601424429
keywords = zoster
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19/26. An immunologic abnormality common to Bickerstaff's brain stem encephalitis and Fisher's syndrome.

    The nosological position of Bickerstaff's brain stem encephalitis (BBE) has yet to be established, and its etiology is not clear. Because anti-GQ1b antibody frequently occurs in patients with Fisher's syndrome (FS) and there are clinical similarities between FS and BBE, we investigated anti-ganglioside antibodies in sera from 3 BBE patients who had transient long tract signs in addition to acute ophthalmoplegia and cerebellar-like ataxia in order to clarify the etiology and nosological position of BBE. High IgG anti-GQ1b antibody titers were present in all 3 sera samples but decreased with the clinical course of the illness. In contrast, no anti-GQ1b antibody was found in sera from patients with other neurologic diseases which were able to produce transient brain stem disturbance: multiple sclerosis, neuro-Behcet's disease, brain stem infarction, herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and Wernicke's encephalopathy. The finding that BBE and FS shared common autoantibody suggests that autoimmune mechanism common to FS is likely in BBE, and that both conditions represent a distinct disease with a wide spectrum of symptoms that include ophthalmoplegia and ataxia.
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ranking = 6
keywords = encephalitis
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20/26. Hemorrhagic varicella: a case report and review of the complications of varicella in children.

    The case of a previously healthy child who developed progressive systemic varicella with purpura is reported. The clinical course of this patient is outlined, and the range of potential complications of chickenpox in children is reviewed. Familiarity with the usual uncomplicated natural history of primary varicella infection should alert the clinician to signs and symptoms that signal significant systemic involvement.
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ranking = 5.3925739204102
keywords = varicella
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