Cases reported "Cerebellar Ataxia"

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1/49. Acute cerebellar ataxia with human parvovirus B19 infection.

    A 2 year old boy developed acute cerebellar ataxia in association with erythema infectiosum. During the disease, genomic dna and antibodies against human parvovirus B19 were detected in serum but not in cerebrospinal fluid. parvovirus B19 associated acute cerebellar ataxia might occur due to transient vascular reaction in the cerebellum during infection.
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2/49. Palatal tremor, progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, and cerebellar ataxia: a case report and review of literature of palatal tremors in neurodegenerative disease.

    We describe a patient with an unusual clinical presentation of progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, cerebellar ataxia, and palatal tremor (PT) resulting from an unknown etiology. magnetic resonance imaging showed evidence of hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nuclei, brain stem atrophy, and marked cerebellar atrophy. This combination of progressive multiple cranial nerve palsies, cerebellar ataxia, and PT has never been reported in the literature. We have also reviewed the literature of PT secondary to neurodegenerative causes. In a total of 23 patients, the common causes are sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA; 22%), Alexander's disease (22%), unknown etiology (43.4%), and occasionally progressive supranuclear palsy (4.3%) and spinocerebellar degeneration (4.3%). Most patients present with progressive cerebellar ataxia and approximately two thirds of them have rhythmic tremors elsewhere. ear clicks are observed in 13% and evidence of hypertrophy of the inferior olivary nucleus in 25% of the patients. The common neurodegenerative causes of PT are OPCA/multiple system atrophy, Alexander's disease, and, in most of them, the result of an unknown cause.
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3/49. A mitochondrial encephalo-myo-neuropathy with a nucleotide position 3271 (T-C) point mutation in the mitochondrial dna.

    We report three members of a family, who exhibited a phenotype similar to 'myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers' but had a genotype usually associated with 'mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes'. The patients, a 48-year-old female, and her two sons, aged 21 and 19 respectively, presented with photo-reactive syncopal episodes, disturbances of gait and writing, dysarthria and finger tremor since the 3rd and 2nd decade of life, respectively, that were accompanied also by numbness and weakness of the extremities. Subsequently, cerebellar ataxia and myoclonus were also noted. electromyography revealed both myogenic and neurogenic muscular changes, and nerve conduction studies demonstrated a sensory-motor neuropathy. biopsy showed ragged-red fibers with strongly stained SDH-positive vessels in skeletal muscles, and a marked loss of myelinated fibers of the sural nerves. Mitochondrial (mt) dna analyses of peripheral blood, muscles and nerves revealed that all members had a heteroplasmic np3271 (T-C) point mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA-Leu gene (UUR). This family is unique, in that all patients presented with a myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers-like phenotype and had a distinctive peripheral neuropathy, while the detected mtDNA 327l (T-C) mutation has been reported to date only in rare cases of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes
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4/49. Corneal endothelial degeneration in dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy.

    BACKGROUND: Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration that exhibits a variety of neurologic manifestations. However, only a few reports have studied disturbances outside the central nervous system. We described 2 unrelated patients with DRPLA accompanied by corneal endothelial degeneration. patients AND methods: A 52-year-old man presented with cerebellar ataxia and dementia. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed cerebellar atrophy. Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy was diagnosed because of the detection of expansion of CAG repeats at the DRPLA locus. On admission, his visual acuity was severely impaired. Specular microscopy showed decreased endothelial cell density (500 cells/mm(2)) compared with that of healthy subjects. The second patient was a 69-year-old man with cerebellar ataxia. magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed cerebellar and brainstem atrophy. The diagnosis of DRPLA was based on expanded CAG repeats of the DRPLA gene. Specular microscopy showed significant decrease of endothelial cell density (1506 cells/mm(2)). Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed DRPLA gene expression in corneal endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Mutant DRPLA protein may be directly associated with corneal endothelial degeneration. corneal endothelial cell loss is an important sign of DRPLA, and the corneas of patients with DRPLA should be examined.
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5/49. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions in a new cerebellar tremor/ataxia syndrome among fragile X carriers.

    A neurological syndrome involving progressive action tremor with ataxia, cognitive decline and generalized brain atrophy has been described recently in some adult males with pre-mutation alleles of the fragile x syndrome (FXS) fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1). Neurohistological studies have now been performed on the brains of four elderly premutation carriers, not reported previously, who displayed the neurological phenotype. Eosinophilic, intranuclear inclusions were present in both neuronal and astrocytic nuclei of the cortex in all four individuals. Systematic analysis of the brains of two of these carriers demonstrated the presence of the intranuclear inclusions throughout the cerebrum and brainstem, being most numerous in the hippocampal formation. The cerebellum displayed marked dropout of purkinje cells, Purkinje axonal torpedoes and Bergmann gliosis. Intranuclear inclusions were absent from purkinje cells, although they were present in a small number of neurones in the dentate nucleus and diffusely in cerebellar astrocytes. The presence of inclusions in the brains of all four FXS carriers with the neurological findings provides further support for a unique clinical entity associated with pre-mutation FMR1 alleles. The origin of the inclusions is unknown, although elevated FMR1 mRNA levels in these pre-mutation carriers may lead to the neuropathological changes.
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6/49. Slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and cervical dystonia: clinical presentation of a new form of spinocerebellar ataxia?

    We describe 5 cases with a rare combination of young-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia and cervical dystonia. Two were sporadic, whereas the other 3 were familial, including 2 from one family. The age of onset of these cases was between 16 and 37 years. The presenting symptom was cervical dystonia and/or dystonic head tremor in 3 patients and hand or lower limb tremor in 2. In 2 cases, cervical dystonia and/or dystonic head tremor developed approximately 6 to 10 years before cerebellar dysfunction, and in three they developed at the same time. Apart from cervical dystonia, there was mild dystonic limb involvement in 2 cases, but generalized dystonia was not seen. cerebellar ataxia was slowly progressive. A literature search showed 10 cases of cervical dystonia associated with genetically undetermined (n = 5) or genetically proven (n = 5) spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). When the genotype was known, these patients had either SCA3, 6, 7, or 12. However, our 5 cases (or their first-degree relatives) tested negative for SCA1, 2, 3, 6, and 7, and in the 4 cases (or their first-degree relatives) tested for SCA12, the result was negative. We propose that this rare phenotype manifesting as a combination of cerebellar ataxia and cervical dystonia may represent one or more new, as yet uncharacterized, genotypes of inherited young-onset spinocerebellar ataxia. copyright Movement Disorder Society
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7/49. paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration: successful early detection and treatment of cancer through characterization of the anti-Purkinje cell antibody.

    paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD) is thought to be caused by an autoantibody against both tumor and neuronal tissue. Such autoantibodies are most frequently detected in patients with gynecological or breast cancer, and are designated as anti-Yo. We report here a patient with PCD whose underlying cancer could not be detected despite extensive tumor survey. IgG in her serum and cerebrospinal fluid reacted with the cytoplasm of cerebellar purkinje cells immunohistochemically. On immunoelectron microscopy, the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex were stained. Her IgG bound to the 58 kD band on immunoblots of cerebellar proteins. A reaction was also observed with the recombinant proteins deduced from the complementary dna clone encoding a neuronal cell antigen reported by Sakai et al (Ann Neurol 28: 692, 1990). Based on these results, successful early resection of fallopian tube adenocarcinoma was performed. It is crucially important to characterize these PCD related autoantibodies for the early treatment of underlying malignant tumors.
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8/49. Transitory ataxia related to topically administered lidocaine.

    OBJECTIVE: To report 2 cases of transitory cerebellar ataxia related to lidocaine administered topically for endoscopy. case summaries: Two patients developed transitory cerebellar ataxia a few minutes after local anesthesia using lidocaine 10% spray and lidocaine 2% orally for a bronchoscopy and transesophageal echocardiography. This effect completely disappeared in 3-5 hours. In neither case was an alternate etiology of cerebellar ataxia identified. The second patient had previously experienced a similar reaction to lidocaine. DISCUSSION: Several central neurologic effects of lidocaine have been reported, but until now, only few cases of cerebellar ataxia. In these 2 cases, the Naranjo probability scale indicated that a probable and a highly probable relationship existed between lidocaine administration and the transitory cerebellar ataxia. CONCLUSIONS: cerebellar ataxia may occur after local anesthesia with lidocaine; therefore, care must be taken to avoid overdose, even when administered topically.
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9/49. Progressive ataxia and palatal tremor (PAPT): clinical and MRI assessment with review of palatal tremors.

    Palatal tremor has been subdivided into essential (EPT) and symptomatic palatal tremor (SPT). A subgroup of the SPT form has a syndrome of progressive ataxia and palatal tremor (PAPT). Published details of cases of PAPT are sparse and the disorder appears heterogeneous. We present clinical and MRI features of six patients with sporadic PAPT who attended The University health Network between 1991 and 2002. eye movements were recorded using a magnetic search coil technique. We review previously reported cases of PAPT from the English language literature and relate this disorder to EPT and SPT. PAPT may be divided into sporadic and familial forms. We identified 22 other prior reported cases of sporadic PAPT. Sporadic PAPT is a subtype of SPT in which progressive cerebellar degeneration is the most symptomatic feature. A combination of vertical nystagmus and palatal tremor was found in one of our cases. Internuclear ophthalmoplegia, a new finding, was present in two of our patients and indicated additional brainstem dysfunction. Inferior olivary high signal abnormalities were present on MRI in all of our cases. The cause of sporadic PAPT remains uncertain. In some previous reports of sporadic PAPT, the combination of brainstem or pontine atrophy, parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction or corticospinal tract abnormalities suggests a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, although pathological verification is lacking. Familial PAPT is associated with marked brainstem and cervical cord atrophy with corticospinal tract findings, but the typical olivary MRI abnormalities have not been reported. A substitution in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene has been described in a family with PAPT, raising the possibility of Alexander's disease. One other familial syndrome of PAPT, termed 'dark dentate disease', has also been reported. PAPT is a subgroup of SPT in which ataxia progresses and is not usually the result of a monophasic illness. Eye movement abnormalities suggest a disorder of both the cerebellum and brainstem. Familial PAPT differs from sporadic PAPT in having marked atrophy of cervical cord and brainstem with corticospinal signs but without hypertrophic olivary appearance on MRI.
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10/49. Neurological manifestations of celiac disease.

    celiac disease (CD/ Nontropicalsprue, gluten-sensitive enteropathy) is a malabsortive condition in which an allergic reaction to the cereal grain-protein gluten (present in wheat, rye and barley) causes small intestine mucosal injury. The onset is in the first four decades of life, with a female to male ratio of 2:1. It may be associated with a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations including cerebellar ataxia, epileptic seizures, dementia, neuropathy, myopathy and multifocal leucoencephalopathy. We report three patients with neurological manifestations related with CD: one with cerebellar ataxia, one with epilepsy and one with cognitive impairment. The diagnosis of CD was confirmed by serologic tests (antiendomysial and antigliadin antibodies) and biopsy of the small intestine. In two patients the neurological symptoms preceded the gastrointestinal abnormalities and in all of them gluten restriction failed to improve the neurological disability. CONCLUSION: CD should be ruled out in the differential diagnosis of neurological dysfunction of unknown cause, including ataxia, epilepsy and dementia. A gluten free diet, the mainstay of treatment, failed to improve the neurological disability.
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