Cases reported "Cerebellar Diseases"

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11/64. The treatment of 'acquired tonsillar herniation' in pseudotumour cerebri.

    Acquired tonsillar herniation and syrinx formation are recognized complications of a lumboperitoneal shunt used to treat conditions of increased CSF volume. Treatment of this complication is by ventriculoperitoneal shunt or foramen magnum decompression. We describe the first case of acquired tonsillar herniation in a pseudotumour cerebri (following lumboperitoneal shunt insertion) that responded partly to ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion and more completely to foramen magnum decompression. Our case demonstrates that a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is not always sufficient in treating this complication and reversing visual deterioration. foramen magnum decompression may therefore be a sight saving procedure in pseudotumour cerebri with acquired tonsillar herniation and may be important in understanding the pathogenesis of conditions of increased CSF volume.
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12/64. A severe frontal-parietal lobe syndrome following cerebellar damage.

    We report a case study of a frontal and parietal lobe syndrome with memory loss after unilateral left-sided cerebellar damage caused by a stroke in a patient with right cerebellar unusual developmental agenesis. The syndrome consisted of severe deficits in planning an organized sequence of events, in visuo-constructive abilities and inappropriate jocularity. These changes are ascribed in part to cerebellar-pontine lesions with resulting frontal lobe diaschisis as documented by single-photon emission computed tomography in the absence of morphological damage to the neocortex.
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ranking = 19.524133702924
keywords = cortex
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13/64. Hereditary neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease with autonomic failure and cerebellar degeneration.

    BACKGROUND: Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID), a multiple-system degeneration, occurs usually as a sporadic disorder with onset in childhood. The disease has been found in monozygotic twins and in siblings. In 2 previously described families, the disorder has affected 2 generations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical, anatomical, and electrophysiological characteristics of NIID that affect the central nervous system and the central and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system in 2 successive generations of a family. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. patients: A 53-year old woman and her sons, aged 28 and 25 years. Symptoms began in childhood in 2 of the 3 cases, and consisted of urinary and fecal incontinence, erectile dysfunction in the men, and recurrent orthostatic hypotension. methods: We used results of clinical neurological evaluations; cranial magnetic resonance imaging; skeletal muscle and sphincter electromyography (EMG); peripheral nerve conduction and bulbocavernosus reflex studies; autonomic function tests; brainstem, visual, somatosensory, and motor evoked potentials; auditory and vestibular testing; metabolic and molecular genetic testing; and muscle and rectal biopsy with immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: We found variable degrees of ocular dysmetria in 2 cases, ataxic dysarthria and limb ataxia in 1, and hyperreflexia in 2. magnetic resonance imaging revealed cerebellar atrophy in all 3 cases and diffuse cerebral cortical atrophy in 1. Results of peripheral nerve conduction studies were normal. Sphincter EMG findings were abnormal in 2 of the 3 cases, and results of autonomic function tests were abnormal in the same 2. The EMG in 1 case revealed a chronic neurogenic pattern in the distal limb muscles. Metabolic and molecular genetic testing revealed no abnormal findings. Results of the muscle biopsy were negative, but results of the rectal biopsy revealed eosinophilic ubiquitinated intranuclear inclusions in neurons. CONCLUSION: Transmission of NIID in 2 generations presenting with autonomic failure and cerebellar ataxia was hereditary.
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14/64. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis secondary to refractory frontal seizures in childhood.

    We report a girl with refractory partial seizures since 7 years of age, secondary to right frontal cortical dysplasia, who developed MRI and SPECT abnormalities in the contralateral hemicerebellar cortex. These became more marked, leading to left hemicerebellar atrophy. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis has been described mostly in hemispheric stroke and supratentorial tumours, but less often in epilepsy. It is usually a transient phenomenon. This report shows that crossed cerebellar diaschisis can develop within two years of seizure onset and evolve over time.
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ranking = 19.524133702924
keywords = cortex
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15/64. Long-term neuropsychological deficits after cerebellar infarctions in two young adult twins.

    Two young adult dizygotic twins with high schooling suffered two strokes at the ages of 26 and 30 years. On the first occasion, Case 2 suffered a stroke only a few months after Case 1; on the second occasion, Case 1 suffered a second stroke a few months after Case 2. In Case 1, lesions were mainly localized to the left cerebellar hemisphere in both stroke episodes. Case 2 suffered lesions localized to the right cerebellar hemisphere in the first stroke episode, and multiple lesions in both cerebellar hemispheres and the vermis, right pons and left thalamus during the second stroke episode. Seven years after the second stroke, despite full recovery of motor functions, the patients still show mild, yet selective, linguistic deficits (syntactic comprehension deficits, mild agrammatism, reading and writing disorders) without speech disturbances. They also present with selective dysfunctions in visuospatial short-term memory. language disorders are ascribed to a dysfunction of the cerebellum in Case 1, while in Case 2 a dysfunction of the cerebellum and the thalamus is considered as both structures are part of the so-called 'frontal lobe system', which supports language generation. Visuospatial short-term memory disorders are attributed to an impaired ability to appreciate the organizing structure of the visual task and to poor planning strategies, which are in turn ascribed to cerebellar lesions. The role of the cerebellum in cognitive and linguistic functions is discussed.
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16/64. Cystic kidney dysplasia and polydactyly in 3 sibs with bardet-biedl syndrome.

    Two infants with cystic kidney dysplasia and polydactyly were born to consanguineous parents. One infant died at age 2 months, and the other is currently 3.5 years old. A third pregnancy was terminated following ultrasonographic visualization of large echo-dense fetal kidneys and polydactyly. Although none had apparent brain anomalies, they were considered to represent the Meckel syndrome. Extinguished responses on electroretinography in our 3.5-year-old patient has led to the diagnosis of bardet-biedl syndrome. This observation offers an opportunity to revisit the bardet-biedl syndrome and provides further evidence that structural renal abnormalities are characteristic of the syndrome. We wish to alert the clinician to the diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome in patients with infantile cystic kidney dysplasia.
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17/64. Infectious acute hemicerebellitis.

    We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with initial symptoms of encephalitis who presented 24 hours later with hemiataxia, unilateral dysmetria, and hemiparesis. brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a high T2-weighted signal in the ipsilateral hemicerebellar cortex. Forty-five days later, a second MRI disclosed signs of hemiatrophy and cortical gliosis. The clinical outcome was favorable, with only a slight lack of motor coordination in the involved hand remaining. Three other cases of hemicerebellitis have been reported in the literature, two of them presenting with hemicerebellar symptoms and one mimicking a tumor. Follow-up imaging studies some months later have shown hemiatrophy of the cerebellar cortex, except in one case with a normal control MRI. The pathophysiology of this unilateral involvement is difficult to explain. We underline the need to consider this rare entity in asymmetric cerebellar clinical presentations and to perform MRI rather than computed tomography to reach the correct diagnosis.
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ranking = 39.048267405849
keywords = cortex
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18/64. Focal appearance of cerebellar torpedoes associated with discrete lesions in the cerebellar white matter.

    Cerebellar torpedoes, unique fusiform swellings of Purkinje cell axons within the granular layer, have been known to occur sparsely associated with diffuse cerebellar changes. This report describes, in three human autopsy cases with focal necrotic lesions in the cerebellar white matter, torpedoes which were essentially confined to the cerebellar cortex overlying the lesions. purkinje cells in the same region showed no recognizable change, but were obviously decreased in number. The location of the necrotic lesions was such that they may well have severed Purkinje cell axons projecting into the deeply located cerebellar nuclei from the torpedo-carrying cortex. These findings indicate that damage to Purkinje cell axons, even if it occurs far away from the cell bodies, may have a critical influence upon the metabolism of purkinje cells and play an important role in the formation of torpedoes.
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ranking = 39.048267405849
keywords = cortex
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19/64. Normal IQ in a 55-year-old with newly diagnosed rhombencephalosynapsis.

    Rhombencephalosynapsis (RS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized principally by agenesis/hypogenesis of the cerebellar vermis and fusion of the dentate nuclei and cerebellar hemispheres. Fusion of the peduncles and colliculi is common, and associated anomalies of the cerebral hemispheres also can be present. Only about 50 cases with RS have been described and the majority of these have been children. While the literature suggests that RS often is associated with behavioral and/or intellectual impairment, no previous report has described overall neuropsychological functioning. This report describes an employed male who was diagnosed with RS by MRI at age 55. The neurological examination revealed only subtle sensory-motor abnormalities and the results of the neuropsychological evaluation were generally within normal limits, with the exception of poor immediate visual memory and motor dexterity. These findings suggest RS is not inevitably associated with substantial cognitive impairment.
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20/64. CACNA1A mutations causing episodic and progressive ataxia alter channel trafficking and kinetics.

    BACKGROUND: CACNA1A encodes CaV2.1, the pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channel complexes. Mutations in CACNA1A cause a wide range of neurologic disturbances variably associated with cerebellar degeneration. Functional studies to date focus on electrophysiologic defects that do not adequately explain the phenotypic findings. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether some missense mutations might interfere with protein folding and trafficking, eventually leading to protein aggregation and neuronal injury. methods: The authors studied the functional consequences of two pore missense mutations, C287Y and G293R, in two families with EA2, one newly discovered and the other previously reported. Both mutations caused episodic and interictal ataxia. The biophysical properties of mutant and wild type calcium channels were examined by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in transfected COS-7 cells. The plasma membrane targeting was visualized by confocal fluorescence imaging on CaV2.1 tagged with green fluorescent protein. RESULTS: The mutant channels exhibited a marked reduction in current expression and deficiencies in plasma membrane targeting. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to altered channel function, the deficiency in protein misfolding and trafficking associated with the C287Y and G293R mutants may contribute to the slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia.
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