Cases reported "Cerebellar Diseases"

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1/13. Solitary sarcoid granuloma of the cerebellopontine angle: a case report.

    BACKGROUND: sarcoidosis involves the nervous system about 5% of the time and usually manifests as a granulomatous inflammation of the basal meninges and hypothalamus. Cases which are strictly isolated to the central nervous system occur infrequently; rarely, they may present as an intracranial mass. methods: We present the case of a solitary sarcoid granuloma at the cerebellopontine angle in a 42-year-old female who presented with headache, facial numbness, and hearing loss. RESULTS: A suboccipital craniectomy was performed and the lesion was noted to be grossly adherent to the lower cranial nerves and skull base. The lesion was misdiagnosed as a meningioma with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and intraoperative histology, and perhaps additional morbidity resulted. CONCLUSION: We present this case in order to demonstrate the importance of differentiating these dural-based lesions and propose that cases of neurosarcoidosis presenting as a solitary granuloma be treated with surgical debulking and immunosuppression.
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ranking = 1
keywords = craniectomy
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2/13. adult rhombencephalosynapsis. Case report.

    Rhombencephalosynapsis (RS) is a relatively rare developmental disorder of the cerebellum in which the cerebellar hemispheres are fused across the midline without being separated by a cleft or the vermis. The condition may be associated with hydrocephalus and other intracranial and extracranial abnormalities. The authors report on the case of a symptomatic adult who was successfully treated with suboccipital decompression and duraplasty. A 39-year-old woman presented with intractable pain radiating from the thoracolumbar column to the occiput. A general examination yielded normal findings and a neurological examination revealed only subtle ataxia of tandem gait. The patient underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the results of which revealed an absent cerebellar vermis with fusion of the cerebellum and mild hydrocephalus. A cine-MR image obtained to evaluate her cerebrospinal fluid flow (CSF) revealed attenuated flow in the posterior fossa and cerebral aqueduct. Preoperative intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring demonstrated no elevation of ICP (mean 4.3 mm Hg). The patient consented to undergo suboccipital craniectomy and duraplasty. Despite an increase in postoperative ICP (mean 10.77 mm Hg; difference from preoperative level according to a t-test, p = 0.002), the patient experienced symptomatic relief, which has persisted for 3 years. One year postoperatively, a cine-MR image was obtained, which revealed improvement in the patient's CSF dynamics. The authors conclude that, although RS may cause altered flow in the adult, their patient has experienced symptomatic relief, suggesting that her pain was related to local pressure in the posterior fossa.
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keywords = craniectomy
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3/13. A craniocervical injury-induced syringomyelia caused by central canal dilation secondary to acquired tonsillar herniation. Case report.

    The authors report on a 19-year-old man with an acquired tonsillar herniation caused by a craniocervical junction injury in which serial magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated patent and isolated segments of the central canal participating in the dilation and then formation of a cervical syrinx. The patient was involved in a motor vehicle accident; he developed tonsillar herniation as a complication of subarachnoid and epidural hemorrhage, predominantly observed around the cisterna magna and upper cervical canal. Repeated MR images obtained over an 11-month period indicated the for mation and acute enlargement of the syrinx. Ten months after the accident, the patient presented with sensory disturbance in both upper extremities and spasticity due to syringomyelia. He underwent craniocervical decompressive surgery and doraplasty, which reduced the size of syringomyelia. The authors postulate that the patent central canal may play a role in determining the location of a syrinx remote from a focus of cerebrospinal fluid obstruction.
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ranking = 0.17514820945973
keywords = decompressive
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4/13. Metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma with human chorionic gonadotropin production manifesting as cerebellar hemorrhage--case report.

    A 58-year-old male presented with a rare case of brain metastatic bronchogenic carcinoma with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) production causing cerebellar hemorrhage with symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and headache. Bronchogenic carcinoma manifesting as gynecomastia had been resected a few months previously. Neurological examination revealed left cerebellar ataxia. neuroimaging showed multiple cerebellar metastases with cerebellar hemorrhage adjacent to the tentorium. angiography demonstrated tumor staining fed by the hemispheric branch of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Suboccipital craniectomy was performed. The left cerebellar hematoma was evacuated and the tumor was partially removed to prevent massive intraoperative hemorrhage and avoid brain stem injury. Histological examination showed the resected tumor was large cell carcinoma. hCG was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and was identified by immunohistochemical staining in tumor cells. The primary lesion of bronchogenic carcinoma showed choriocarcinomatous change because the tumor could produce hCG. The choriocarcinomatous cells with higher metastatic potential formed lesions in the brain, and finally intratumoral hemorrhage occurred producing the rapid development of symptoms.
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keywords = craniectomy
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5/13. Reverse brain herniation during posterior fossa surgery.

    Posterior fossa tumors are commonly associated with obstructive hydrocephalus. Relieving the raised intracranial pressure by draining the cerebrospinal fluid presents the possibility of reverse herniation of the brain. A 5-year-old male child with a diagnosis of posterior fossa space-occupying lesion and hydrocephalus was scheduled for craniectomy in the prone position. After craniectomy, the surgeons placed an intraventricular shunt catheter to drain out cerebrospinal fluid in an attempt to reduce the tense brain so as to facilitate easy dissection of the tumor. The patient had sudden and severe bradycardia followed by asystole. A diagnosis of reverse coning was made. Immediately, the surgeon injected 10-15 mL normal saline into the ventricles. There was a spontaneous return of the sinus rhythm and the rest of the course of surgery was uneventful. We present this case showing a rare phenomenon and its successful management.
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keywords = craniectomy
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6/13. cerebellopontine angle cysticercus and concurrent vascular compression in a case of trigeminal neuralgia.

    The authors present the case of a 59-year-old woman with an 8 months history of lancinating pain and hyphestesia on the right side of the face along with hearing impairment. She had poor tolerance to carbamazepine. A non-enhancing cystic image was observed at the right cerebellopontine angle on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent surgery. Through a right retromastoid minicraniectomy and under microscopic magnification the VII and VIII cranial nerve complex was found involved by multiple adhesions around a cysticercus. After the cyst was removed a loop of the anteroinferior cerebellar artery was identified compressing the V right nerve at its root entry zone. decompression was performed by the insertion of a Teflon implant. The postoperative course was uneventful and trigeminal neuralgia (TN) disappeared after surgery. Five previous cases of cranial nerve hyperactive dysfunction syndromes, four of trigeminal neuralgia and one of hemifacial spasm associated to cerebellopontine angle cysticercosis are briefly commented. We suggest that in some of these cases microvascular compression was probably present, and during surgery of cerebellopontine angle cysticercus by either trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, vascular compression must be carefully searched and treated when found.
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ranking = 1
keywords = craniectomy
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7/13. Subdural empyema and cerebellar abscess due to chronic otitis media.

    The infratentorial variety of the subdural empyema, with or without coexisting cerebellar abscess, is a rare clinical entity that carries a high mortality rate. We briefly describe the case of a 49-year-old man presented with severe debility, fever and an obviously neglected chronic otitis media. The patient had refused surgical treatment several months ago. After admission, his level of consciousness began to deteriorate, and the radiological studies showed infratentorial subdural suppuration extending into the right cerebellar hemisphere, along with chronic pyogenic infection of the middle ear and the mastoid process. Radical mastoidectomy was performed first, followed by extensive right posterior fossa craniectomy. The two subdural collections and the cerebellar abscess were successfully evacuated. Subsequently, he received post-operative antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks. At follow-up, 10 months after surgery, his neurological recovery was complete except for a minor residual cerebellar dysfunction on the right. This unusual case highlights that in patients presented with severe intracranial complications of chronic otitis media, early diagnosis and radical surgical intervention may be life saving.
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ranking = 1
keywords = craniectomy
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8/13. Successful cardic surgery 24 hours after craniotomy in a patient with infective endocarditis and embolic cerebellar infarction: case report.

    Follow up management in a patient already treated with decompressive craniotomy for a space-occupying endocarditic stroke is difficult. While immediate valve replacement eliminates the focus and therefore the high risk of re-embolization, a neurosurgical intervention is considered a contraindication to early cardiosurgery. Herein, the first report is presented of a critically ill patient with bacterial endocarditis and a space-occupying cerebellar infarction with imminent herniation, who successfully underwent mitral valve replacement only 24 h after decompressive craniotomy. To prevent rebleeding, maximal hemostasis was ensured during the neurosurgical intervention. For cardiosurgery, the patient was cooled to 21 degrees C, mildly hyperventilated, and maintained at an adequate perfusion pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass. A bioprosthesis was used to reduce the time of anticoagulation. The patient did not develop new infarcts after either intervention, and there was only a very small hemorrhagic transformation without a relevant mass effect. At five months after surgery the patient had minimal neurological abnormalities and was able to conduct his daily life without help.
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ranking = 0.35029641891946
keywords = decompressive
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9/13. Treatment of cerebellar infarction by decompressive suboccipital craniectomy.

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We present an anecdotal series of 11 patients without past history of stroke with progressive neurological deterioration while on medical therapy for large cerebellar infarctions. Clinical signs of brain stem compression developed in these patients. Computerized tomography of the head confirmed mass effect from brain edema. It was the clinical judgment of the neurologists and neurosurgeons that each of these 11 patients would expire without surgical intervention. methods: All 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age, 54 years) were treated with suboccipital craniectomy for decompression and temporary ventriculostomy for cerebrospinal fluid pressure monitoring and drainage. RESULTS: Seven patients demonstrated neurological improvement on the first postoperative day. Two patients returned to their previous jobs 3 months after surgery. The Barthel Index indicated that six individuals were functioning with minimal assistance within a follow-up period of 16-60 months. The remaining three were functionally dependent. No mortality was noted in this series. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that decompressive suboccipital craniectomy may be an effective, lifesaving procedure for malignant cerebellar edema after a large infarction.
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ranking = 6.8757410472986
keywords = craniectomy, decompressive
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10/13. Endoscopic hematoma evacuation for hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage.

    OBJECT: The management of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage remains controversial, particularly the surgical indications. Endoscopic surgery was evaluated for the treatment of spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage. methods: The records of 69 patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. patients treated by endoscopic surgery (n = 10) were compared with patients treated by conventional surgical hematoma evacuation (n = 10) under the same surgical indications. RESULTS: The surgical procedure time, duration of ventricular drainage, extent of hematoma evacuation, necessity for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt, surgical complications, and outcome at discharge and at 3 months after onset were compared. The extent of hematoma evacuation was greater in the endoscopic group (95.2 %) than in the craniectomy group (90.6 %) but without significant difference. The endoscopic technique (64.5 min) took significantly less time than the craniectomy method (230.6 min, p < 0.0001). The period of ventricular drainage was significantly shorter in the endoscopic group (2.6 days) compared to the craniectomy group (12.3 days, p < 0.01). CSF shunt surgery was required in no patient in the endoscopic group compared to three in the craniectomy group. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic hematoma evacuation is a rapid, effective, and safe technique for the removal of hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage. Reduction of the mass effect can be accomplished with low risk of recurrent hemorrhage. Release of obstructive hydrocephalus in the early stage may improve the patient's outcome and decrease the requirement for permanent shunt emplacement.
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ranking = 4
keywords = craniectomy
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