Cases reported "Cerebellar Neoplasms"

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1/39. Hemorrhagic cerebellar metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma has a low incidence of distant metastases. Brain metastasis is extremely rare with a frequency of 0.1-1.3%. In the present series, the rate was 1.5%, only two cases had cerebral metastases in 136 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma from January 1988 to April 1998. Cerebellar metastasis is even rarer, and solitary cerebellar metastasis has not been reported to the best of our knowledge. Two cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma with cerebellar metastases presenting as tumor hemorrhage are reported. In one patient, the lesion was in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres with obstructive hydrocephalus. After operation, the patient had an uneventful course with recovery of her consciousness. In the other, the solitary lesion was in the left cerebellar hemisphere without obstructive hydrocephalus. After surgical treatment, the patient had a smooth course with resolution of his neurological deficit. It shows the importance of surgery in the management of a hemorrhagic cerebellar metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma, not only in reducing acute aggravating cerebral symptoms, but also in prolonging survival time.
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2/39. Magnetic resonance cisternography using the fast spin echo method for the evaluation of vestibular schwannoma.

    neuroimaging of vestibular schwannoma was performed with the fat-suppression spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) method and magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography, which is a fast spin echo method using a long echo train length, for the preoperative evaluation of the lateral extension of the tumor in the internal auditory canal, and the anatomical identification of the posterior semicircular canal and the nerves in the canal distal to the tumor. The SPGR method overestimated the lateral extension in eight cases, probably because of enhancement of the nerves adjacent to the tumor in the canal. The posterior semicircular canal could not be clearly identified, and the cranial nerves in the canal were shown only as a nerve bundle. In contrast, MR cisternography showed clear images of the lateral extension of the tumor and the facial and cochlear nerves adjacent to the tumor in the internal auditory canal. The anatomical location of the posterior semicircular canal was also clearly shown. These preoperative findings are very useful to plan the extent to which the internal auditory canal can be opened, and for intraoperative identification of the nerves in the canal. MR cisternography is less invasive since no contrast material or radiation is required, as with thin-slice high-resolution computed tomography (CT). MR cisternography should replace high-resolution CT for the preoperative neuroradiological evaluation of vestibular schwannoma.
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3/39. An intracranial aneurysm on the feeding artery of a cerebellar hemangioblastoma. Case report.

    A case of cerebellar hemangioblastoma with a coexistent arterial aneurysm on the feeding artery of the tumor is reported. The patient presented with an acute onset of headache, loss of consciousness, and left-sided hemiparesis due to a posterior fossa hemorrhage found adjacent to a hemangioblastoma. Four-vessel angiography revealed an aneurysm on the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), which was the main feeding vessel of the hemangioblastoma. Successful total excision of the hemangioblastoma and clipping of the AICA aneurysm achieved in a one-stage operation was demonstrated on postoperative angiography.
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4/39. Multiple genomic alterations including N-myc amplification in a primary large cell medulloblastoma.

    The large cell (LC) subtype is a recently described histologic variant of medulloblastoma (Mb) associated with a rapid and aggressive clinical course. We describe the genomic profile of a LC-Mb tumor obtained from a patient who developed recurrent and fulminant disease despite 'good-risk' features at diagnosis and state- of-the-art multidisciplinary therapy. The tumor sample was analyzed using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and complementary molecular approaches. CGH revealed amplicons at chromosome bands 2p24-25, 2q12-22, and 17p11; losses of chromosomes 11q and 18; and low-level gains of 3q, 11p, 13q and 14q. Southern blot analysis confirmed N-myc amplification. No evidence of p53 mutation was detected. The genomic profile of this LC-Mb tumor sample revealed a distinctive pattern of genetic alterations including amplification of N-myc and anonymous oncogenes at chromosome bands 2q12-22 and 17p11. These genomic abnormalities are uncommon in other subtypes of Mb.
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5/39. Auditory brainstem response and temporal bone pathology findings in a brain-dead infant.

    The criteria for assessing adult brain death have been already established, but those for infant brain death have not been yet established in japan. We report auditory brainstem response (ABR) and postmortem pathology of the temporal bone and brain of a brain-dead 9-month-old female. During the comatose state, her ABR showed only waves I and II bilaterally. autopsy revealed the presence of a left cerebellar astrocytoma, herniation and anoxic encephalopathy. The pathological examination of the temporal bone revealed the destruction of the inner ear particularly on the left side. In the auditory pathway of brain-dead patients, degeneration occurs first in the cerebrum, followed by the cochlear nerve. Thus, ABR is one of the useful means to assess brain death even in infants.
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6/39. diagnosis and results of treatment with radiation therapy in gliomatosis cerebri patient: case report.

    Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare disease loosely defined as a diffusely infiltrating glioma involving extensive areas of the brain. The prognosis is poor and no definite treatment has proven effective for GC. Little information exists regarding the role of radiation therapy (RT) for GC, but some researchers have suggested that it is a good choice of treatment from their limited experience. In this report, we present a case with imaging and histological diagnosis of GC and demonstrate the treatment results of RT. The patient was a 39-year-old woman with progressive symptoms of dizziness, unsteady gait, headache, vomiting, and consciousness disturbance for 6 months. She received a series of radiographic examinations and surgical interventions for diagnosis. The definite diagnosis of GC was made by a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and histological examinations. Forty Gray (Gy) of whole brain irradiation followed by 14 Gy reduced-field boosts were given to her. The MRI, following treatment, showed regressive changes, and clinical symptoms were slightly improved. The patient survived 19 months after the diagnosis, which is longer than the average survival time of patients without treatment.
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7/39. Tentorial vascularization in solid hemangioblastoma--case report.

    A 40-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with complaints of headache worsening gradually over a 1-month duration. Her past history included surgery to treat a left cerebellar cystic lesion 3 years before, and an untreated small solid right supracerebellar lesion of 1 cm diameter. On admission, magnetic resonance imaging showed that the right cerebellar lesion had grown to approximately 4 cm diameter abutting the tentorium and causing obstructive hydrocephalus. She also had two more small lesions, a right supratentorial solid lesion with cystic component near the splenium and an intramedullary cystic lesion at the C-2 level. Right suboccipital craniectomy was done. The vascular attachments between the superior aspect of the tumor and the tentorium were coagulated and the tumor was totally removed. C1-2 laminectomy was also performed to drain the intramedullary cyst. The patient deteriorated and lost consciousness with respiratory arrest 6 hours postoperatively and was reoperated for intracerebellar hematoma due to oozing from the tentorial vessels. Histological investigation revealed hemangioblastoma. Dural tentorial vascular attachments in solid hemangioblastomas located subjacent to the tentorium may cause early postoperative complications of hematoma at the site of vascular attachment following the resection. Computed tomography study in the early postoperative period is helpful to identify this problem.
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8/39. Hearing restoration from deafness after resection of a large cerebellopontine angle meningioma--case report.

    A 61-year-old man presented with a large cerebellopontine angle meningioma manifesting as a 1-year history of deafness on the right side, in whom hearing was restored from the deaf state immediately after tumor resection. neuroimaging demonstrated a large mass in the right cerebellopontine angle, originating at the region adjacent to the jugular foramen. audiometry showed his hearing was off-scale (> 105 dB) on the right. The tumor was successfully removed through the retrosigmoid approach, and the integrity of the 7th and 8th cranial nerves was maintained. The patient regained hearing on the day after the operation, which continued to improve until near-normal. The 8th cranial nerve function may recover dramatically after removal of non-acoustic tumors, even if preoperative hearing loss is profound. To maximize the opportunity to regain hearing, approaches which devastate cochlear function should be avoided and more meticulous manipulation during tumor removal is needed.
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9/39. prostate cancer presenting as a solitary cerebellar metastasis. A case report and review of the literature.

    We describe a case of a 70-year-old patient with sudden onset of gait ataxia, headache, dizziness and dysarthria. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a solitary lesion in the left cerebellar hemisphere with strong and irregular enhancement of the contrast medium, surrounded by extensive edema. Rectal examination revealed an abnormally enlarged and stiff left prostate lobe, and ultrasound-guided transrectal biopsies showed prostate adenocarcinoma of mild differentiation. Neurosurgical intervention and histopathologic examination revealed metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent orchiectomy and was given antiandrogens. He is still alive and closely followed. According to the literature, prostate cancer presenting as a solitary cerebellar metastasis is an extremely rare clinical problem.
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10/39. Focal motor seizures with secondary generalization arising in the cerebellum. Case report and review of the literature.

    The issue of whether seizures can arise in the cerebellum remains controversial. The authors present the first known case of focal subcortical epilepsy with secondary generalization thought to arise from a dysplastic lesion within the cerebellum. A newborn infant presented with daily episodes of left eye blinking, stereotyped extremity movements, postural arching, and intermittent altered consciousness lasting less than 1 minute. These episodes began on his 1st day of life and progressively increased in frequency to more than 100 events per day. Antiepileptic medications had no effect, and interictal and ictal scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recordings demonstrated bilateral electrical abnormalities. magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the left cerebellar hemisphere, and ictal and interictal single-photon emission computerized tomography revealed a focal perfusion abnormality in the region of the cerebellar mass. The patient subsequently underwent intraoperative EEG monitoring with cortical scalp electrodes and cerebellar depth electrodes. Intraoperative EEG recordings revealed focal seizure discharges that arose in the region of the cerebellar mass and influenced electrographic activity in both cerebral hemispheres. Resection of this mass and the left cerebellar hemisphere led to complete resolution of the patient's seizures and normalization of the scalp EEG readings. Neuropathological findings in this mass were consistent with ganglioglioma. A review of the literature on the cerebellar origins of epilepsy is included.
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