Cases reported "Cerebellar Neoplasms"

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1/27. Hypernasality--a rare initial symptom of a cerebellar astrocytoma.

    Nasality is a disorder due to nasal resonance, which may be induced by a variety of etiologies. Transitional hypernasality is frequently seen in children after adenoidectomy. The alleged post-surgical hypernasality in the case presented was shown to be related to the late detection of an astrocytoma of the cerebellum and the brain stem in a 6-year-old boy. This case was characterized by increased hypernasality which failed speech therapy. A developing one-sided vocal fold palsy in combination with an ipsilateral soft-palate palsy indicated further investigation. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a brain stem-tumor with a maximum size of 6 cm involving parts of the cerebellum. These findings demonstrated the need for a strict follow-up, even after adenoidectomy, in the presence of hypernasality for identifying concurrent etiologies as well as cases suitable for speech therapy.
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2/27. Huge facial schwannoma extending into the middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle without facial nerve palsy--case report.

    A 46-year-old male presented with a huge facial schwannoma extending into both the middle cranial fossa and the cerebellopontine angle but without manifesting facial nerve palsy. Neurological examination on admission revealed no deficits except for speech disturbance. Computed tomography showed a multicystic tumor extending into the middle cranial fossa and the cerebellopontine angle, with destruction of the petrous bone. The tumor was totally grossly removed. Histological examination identified schwannoma. Total facial nerve palsy appeared postoperatively, but hearing acuity was preserved at a useful level. facial nerve palsy is one of the most typical symptoms in patients with facial schwannoma, but is not always manifested even if the tumor extends into both the middle cranial fossa and the cerebellopontine angle.
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keywords = speech
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3/27. Visual agnosia after treatment of a posterior fossa ependymoma in a 16-month-old girl.

    We present the clinical observation of a 16-month-old girl treated for a posterior fossa ependymoma who experienced severe and delayed visual dysfunction. She was initially treated by surgery and conventional chemotherapy. When she relapsed at age 3 years, the salvage treatment combined high-dose chemotherapy, second surgery, and local irradiation. At age 4 years, disturbed gait and dysarthric speech appeared rapidly, and she became unable to recognize objects and people. Computed tomography revealed bilateral calcifications in the cerebellum and temporal and occipital lobes but no relapse. The neuropsychologic evaluations revealed signs of visual agnosia and marked intellectual impairment. The role of the different treatment modalities in the pathogenesis of this unusual syndrome is discussed.
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keywords = speech
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4/27. Metastatic brainstem tumor manifesting as hearing disturbance--case report.

    A 53-year-old male, who had undergone a left upper lung lobectomy for cancer 2 years previously, presented with metastatic brainstem tumor manifesting as hearing disturbance. At first an otorhinolaryngologist treated him for senile sensorineural hearing disturbance. However, he suffered gait ataxia and was referred to our department. On admission, neurological examination found mild cerebellar ataxia on the left and gait unsteadiness. Neurootological analysis revealed central-type sensorineural hearing disturbance on the left both in the pure tone audiogram and speech discrimination test. neuroimaging studies revealed a ring-like enhanced mass centered in the ventral left middle cerebellar peduncle, partly extending to the inferior cerebellar peduncle. Peritumoral edema extending to the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus was recognized. He underwent surgery via a left lateral suboccipital transcondylar approach. The histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma identical with the primary lung cancer. Intra-axial brainstem metastatic lesion can be a cause of hearing disturbance, so should be included in the differential diagnosis for a patient complaining of hearing disturbance, especially with a past history of cancer.
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keywords = speech
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5/27. Surgical indications and microsurgical anatomy of the transchoroidal fissure approach for lesions in and around the ambient cistern.

    OBJECTIVE: Opening the temporal part of the choroidal fissure (CF) makes it possible to expose the crural cistern, the ambient cistern, and the medial temporal lobe. We examined the microsurgical anatomy and the surgical indications for use of the trans-CF approach. methods: The microsurgical anatomy encountered in the trans-CF approach for lesions in and around the ambient cistern was studied in three cadavers. On the basis of these cadaveric studies, the trans-CF approach was used during surgery in three live patients with such lesions. RESULTS: The angiographic "plexal point," which indicates the entrance of the anterior choroidal artery as it enters the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, was thought to be a key anatomic landmark of the trans-CF approach. A cortical incision for entry into the temporal horn should be made in the inferior temporal gyrus to minimize the potential damage to the optic radiations and to the speech centers. After the CF is opened posteriorly to the plexal point between the tenia fimbria and the choroid plexus, the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in the ambient cistern can be observed with minimal caudal retraction of the hippocampus. In this study, surgical procedures using the trans-CF approach were successfully performed on patients with high-positioned P2 aneurysms whose PCA ran close to the plexal point or higher, whose medial temporal arteriovenous malformations were fed mainly by the PCA, and whose tentorial hiatus meningiomas protruded into the temporal horn through the CF, with no resulting postoperative visual or memory disturbances. CONCLUSION: The trans-CF approach is especially useful in surgery for lesions in and around the ambient cistern.
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keywords = speech
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6/27. Diagnostic difficulties in childhood bilateral thalamic astrocytomas.

    We report on two children with bilateral thalamic astrocytomas. The first patient developed psychomotor regression at the age of 20 months followed by rapidly progressive ataxia, intention tremor, slurred speech, and bouts of drowsiness. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed swelling and high signal intensity in both thalami accompanied by supratentorial hydrocephalus. The second patient presented with progressive cerebellar ataxia, headache, and vomiting at the age of 11 years. MRI of the brain revealed symmetrical, hyperintense and sharply delineated swelling of both thalami. Additional lesions were seen in the cerebellum and the right temporal lobe. In both cases proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the lesions showed a striking decrease of the neuronal marker N-acetylaspartate, an increase of choline-containing compounds, and a minimal lactate peak. Stereotactic biopsies from the thalamus of the first patient and from a cerebellar lesion of the second patient finally revealed glial tumors, namely a diffuse astrocytoma of world health organization (WHO) grade II in the first patient and an anaplastic astrocytoma of WHO grade III in the second patient. We conclude that the clinical manifestations and MRI patterns of bilateral thalamic astrocytomas are very similar to those of encephalitis and neurometabolic disorders and should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis of these encephalopathies.
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ranking = 0.5
keywords = speech
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7/27. Syllables as units in speech production: Data from aphasia.

    The syllable has received considerable empirical support as a unit of processing in speech perception, but its status in speech production remains unclear. Some researchers propose that syllables are individually represented and retrieved during phonological encoding (e.g., Dell, 1986; Ferrand, Segui, & Grainger, 1996; MacKay, 1987). We test this hypothesis by examining the influence of syllable frequency on the phonological errors of two aphasics. These individuals both had an impairment in phonological encoding, but appeared to differ in the precise locus of that impairment. They each read aloud and repeated 110 pairs of words matched for syllabic complexity, but differing in final syllable frequency. Lexical frequency was also controlled. Neither aphasic was more error-prone on low than on high frequency syllables (indeed, one showed a near-significant reverse effect), and neither showed a preference for more frequent syllables in their errors. These findings provide no support for the view that syllables are individually represented and accessed during phonological encoding.
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ranking = 3
keywords = speech
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8/27. Transient loss of speech followed by dysarthria after removal of posterior fossa tumour.

    The authors report three children who suffered transient loss of speech during six to eight weeks following removal of a large midline cerebellar tumour. None manifested speech difficulties immediately after surgery, but all developed mutism within 24 to 48 hours. The speech of all children slowly but completely recovered, after a period of severe dysarthria. The re-organization of speech functions is discussed in relation to the functioning of musculature.
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ranking = 4
keywords = speech
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9/27. Cerebellar mutism--report of four cases.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the manifestations of mutism after surgery in children with cerebellar tumors. Speech impairment following cerebellar mutism in children was investigated based on standardized acoustic speech parameters and perceptual criteria. Mutistic and non-mutistic children after cerebellar surgery as well as orthopedic controls were tested pre-and postoperatively. Speech impairment was compared with the localization of cerebellar lesions (i. e. affected lobules and nuclei). Whereas both control groups showed no abnormalities in speech and behavior, the mutistic group could be divided into children with dysarthria in post mutistic phase and children with mainly behavioral disturbances. In the mutistic children involvement of dentate and fastigial nuclei tended to be more frequent and extended than in the nonmutistic cerebellar children.Cerebellar mutism is a complex phenomenon of at least two types. Dysarthric symptoms during resolution of mutism support the anarthria hypothesis, while mainly behavioral changes suggest an explanation independent from speech motor control.
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ranking = 1.5
keywords = speech
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10/27. Differential motor speech outcomes in children treated for mid-line cerebellar tumour.

    PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the nature of the motor speech impairments and dysarthria that can arise subsequent to treatment for childhood mid-line cerebellar tumours (CMCT). research design: The motor speech ability of six cases of children with CMCT was analysed using perceptual and physiological measures and compared with that of a group of non-neurologically impaired children matched for age and sex. MAIN OUTCOME AND RESULTS: Three of the children with CMCT were perceived to exhibit dysarthric speech, while the remaining three were judged to have normal speech. The speech disorder in three of the children with CMCT was marked by deviances in prosody, articulation and phonation. The underlying pathophysiology was linked to cerebellar damage and expressed as difficulty in co-ordinating the motor speech musculature as required for speech production. These deficits were not identified in the three non-dysarthric children with CMCT. CONCLUSION: Differential motor speech outcomes occur for children treated for CMCT and these are discussed within the realm of possible mechanisms responsible for these differences. The need for further investigation of the risk factors for development of motor speech impairment in children treated for CMCT is also highlighted.
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ranking = 6.5
keywords = speech
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