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1/71. Control of primary angiitis of the CNS associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy by cyclophosphamide alone.

    Corticosteroids combined with cyclophosphamide are currently recommended for primary angiitis of the CNS. The authors report a 71-year-old man with primary angiitis of the CNS and amyloid angiopathy who responded to cyclophosphamide without steroids, suggesting that corticosteroids may not be needed in all cases of primary angiitis of the CNS. ( info)

2/71. Intracerebral hemorrhage caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a case report.

    cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) accounts for approximately 10% of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH), and typically occurs in the cortex and subcortical white matter. It is characterized by the deposition of amyloid fibrils in the leptomeningeal, cortical and subcortical arteries. Pathologically, amyloid is stained pink with congo red and shows yellow-green birefringence when viewed under polarized light. Although there have been many reports of CAA in the literature, it has rarely been described in taiwan. This is the report of a case of a 75-year-old man with ICH caused by CAA. The postoperative course was uneventful. The incidence of this disease increases with age. The authors, therefore, suggest conducting a brain biopsy and special stain for CAA in each operative case of spontaneous ICH, especially in the elderly. ( info)

3/71. Novel presenilin-1 mutation with widespread cortical amyloid deposition but limited cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify the phenotypic heterogeneity in deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) in the parenchyma and in cerebral vessels of the brains of the patients having presenilin-1 (PS1) mutations. Mutations in PS1 induce increased production of Abeta42(43), resulting in an enhanced overall deposition of Abeta protein within the cerebral cortex. methods: sequence analysis of the PS1 gene of dna from patients with early onset Alzheimer's disease, and immunostaining of brain tissues by end specific monoclonal antibodies against Abeta. RESULTS: sequence analysis disclosed a novel mutation (N405S) in the PS1 gene in a Japanese patient with early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Postmortem examination of one patient with N405S showed limited cerebral amyloid angiopathy, whereas postmortem examination of another Japanese patient with Alzheimer's disease with the E184D mutation disclosed severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The brains of both patients showed widespread neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Immunostaining showed that Abeta42 was predominant over Abeta40 in neuritic plaques in both patients, whereas Abeta40 was found to be predominant over Abeta42 in cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the patient with E184D. However, most cortical vessels of the patient with N405S were not reactive with either of the antibodies. CONCLUSION: The N405S mutation of PS1 is a major determinant of cortical Abeta deposition but not cerebral amyloid angiopathy in Alzheimer's disease. ( info)

4/71. Familial British dementia with amyloid angiopathy: early clinical, neuropsychological and imaging findings.

    Familial British dementia with amyloid angiopathy (FBD) is an autosomal dominant condition characterized by a dementia, progressive spastic tetraparesis and cerebellar ataxia with onset in the sixth decade. A point mutation in the BRI gene has been shown to be the genetic abnormality. Genealogical work with the large family originally reported by Worster-Drought and updated by Plant has identified nine generations dating back to the late eighteenth century. The pedigree now includes six living affected patients, 35 historical cases, and 52 descendants at risk of having inherited the disease. A common ancestor has been identified between the large pedigree and a case report of 'familial cerebellar ataxia with amyloid angiopathy'. An autopsy case from a separate family with an identical condition is described but no common ancestor with the large pedigree has been found. Case histories have been researched and updated in each pedigree. Eleven individuals at risk of FBD, aged between 44 and 56 years, agreed to undergo a clinical and neuropsychological assessment along with MRI brain imaging in order to clarify early diagnostic features. Five of the eleven were thought to show early clinical signs of the disease. Neurological examination was abnormal in three, with limb and gait ataxia and mild spastic paraparesis. Three had impaired recognition and recall memory and another had mild impairment of delayed visual recall. All affected individuals had an abnormal MRI of the brain, consisting of deep white-matter hyperintensity (T(2)-weighted scans) and lacunar infarcts, but no intracerebral haemorrhage. The corpus callosum was affected particularly, and in one patient it was severely atrophic. ( info)

5/71. cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) with presentation as a brain inflammatory pseudo-tumour.

    cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is frequent but often asymptomatic. It can induce lobar haemorrhage, rapidly progressive dementia or recurrent transient neurological symptoms, other presentations being less frequent. We report 3 patients in their sixties presenting with a space occupying lesion which was the first manifestation of CAA. They were operated with a diagnosis of cerebral tumour. In all three cases, macroscopy was similar, the lesions were superficial in the cerebral cortex and the preoperative diagnoses were glioblastoma, meningioma and cavernoma. Histologically, the lesions consisted of a large inflammatory granuloma with numerous lipophages and siderophages surrounding capillaries with prominent endothelial cells. Vessels in the near cortex and meninges and within the granuloma harboured heavy amyloid deposits immunolabelled by anti-P component, anti-protein beta A4 with a A40 predominance and anti-apolipoprotein E. Adjacent cerebral cortex showed reactive gliosis and rare senile plaques. amyloidosis is rarely considered among diagnoses of space occupying lesions. In our three cases, CT scan and MRI changes were related to the presence of an inflammatory granuloma around foci of haemorrhage and amyloid laden vessels. ( info)

6/71. Giant cell angiitis of the central nervous system with amyloid angiopathy. A case report and review of the literature.

    We report a new case of giant cell angiitis of the central nervous system associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (GA/CAA). A 67-year-old woman was hospitalized with a history of headaches and lapses of consciousness. After improvement with corticosteroidtherpay, treatment was stopped. She relapsed and died 33 days after first admission. Pathological examination showed unusual extension of GA/CAA lesions, in the superficial and deep layer of the cerebral cortex, and in the cerebellum. Simultaneous occurrence of GA and CAA is rare. Histopathologic findings and immunological pathogenesis of the process are discussed: 1) arguments over pre-existence of CAA, responsible for GA; 2) primitive inflammatory process inducing amyloid deposits; 3) GA/CAA may represent an association of histological lesions related to 2 different types of disease: i) neurodegenerative disease with specific lesions (such as presence of diffuse senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) inducing inflammatory reaction ii) inflammatory disease, with few or no degenerative lesions, responding to immunotherapy. ( info)

7/71. Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages in cerebral amyloid angiopathy: a case report.

    cerebral amyloid angiopathy frequently causes recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages in elderly patients who do not have systemic hypertension. Surgery should be reserved for conditions which cannot be controlled by medical treatment. When surgery is needed, potential complications (such as bleeding near the operation site or remote area) should be kept in mind. A case study of a 66-year-old woman with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and recurrent intracerebral hemorrhages is presented. ( info)

8/71. Senile dementia associated with amyloid beta protein angiopathy and tau perivascular pathology but not neuritic plaques in patients homozygous for the APOE-epsilon4 allele.

    Amyloid beta protein deposition in cortical and leptomeningeal vessels, causing the most common type of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, is found in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is the principal feature in the hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, Dutch type. The presence of the Apolipopriotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 allele has been implicated as a risk factor for AD and the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in AD. We report clinical, pathological and biochemical studies on two APOE-epsilon4 homozygous subjects, who had senile dementia and whose main neuropathological feature was a severe and diffuse amyloid angiopathy associated with perivascular tau neurofibrillary pathology. Amyloid beta protein and ApoE immunoreactivity were observed in leptomeningeal vessels as well as in medium-sized and small vessels and capillaries in the parenchyma of the neocortex, hippocampus, thalamus, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, and medulla. The predominant peptide form of amyloid beta protein was that terminating at residue Val40, as determined by immunohistochemistry, amino acid sequence and mass spectrometry analysis. A crown of tau-immunopositive cell processes was consistently present around blood vessels. dna sequence analysis of the Amyloid Precursor Protein gene and presenilin-1 (PS-1) gene revealed no mutations. In these APOE-epsilon4 homozygous patients, the pathological process differed from that typically seen in AD in that they showed a heavy burden of perivascular tau-immunopositive cell processes associated with severe amyloid beta protein angiopathy, neurofibrillary tangles, some cortical lewy bodies and an absence of neuritic plaques. These cases emphasize the concept that tau deposits may be pathogenetically related to amyloid beta protein deposition. ( info)

9/71. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system and Alzheimer's disease: clinically and pathologically evident in a single patient.

    Two years after being successfully treated for biopsy confirmed primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS), a 69-year-old woman presented with cognitive decline. In contrast to her first presentation, her altered mental function developed gradually, was not associated with headache or abnormal cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and did not improve with immunosuppression. Reevaluation of her original brain biopsy not only confirmed the presence of PACNS, but also revealed neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, suggesting a concurrent diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Cerebral angiogram did not suggest vasculitis and magnetic resonance imaging showed generalized cerebral atrophy supporting the diagnosis of Alzheimer's. This case illustrates that Alzheimer's dementia and PACNS can coexist in a single patient and that Alzheimer's disease should be considered when a patient with successfully treated PACNS presents with cognitive decline months or years after initial diagnosis. ( info)

10/71. Cessation of cerebral hemorrhage recurrence associated with corticosteroid treatment in a patient with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

    We report the case of a 65 year old female patient with biopsy-proven cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). She experienced intracerebral hemorrhages 4 times during 23 days but these serious strokes did not recur after corticosteroid therapy was started and her condition greatly improved. Since high titers of antinuclear antibodies and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate were found in her serum, she may have an inflammatory disorder involving amyloid-laden cerebral vessels. This is the first report showing the usefulness ofcorticosteroid for the treatment of CAA-related cerebral hemorrhages. Additionally, the concentrations of Abeta40 and Abeta42 in the CSF of this patient decreased rapidly after the use of corticosteroid, and ultimately fell far below normal values. ( info)
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