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1/1. Prefabricated galeal flap based on superficial temporal and posterior auricular vessels.

    scalp layers are widely used in reconstructive procedures. The authors used prefabricated galeal flaps based on the superficial temporal or postauricular vessels for ear, cheek, mandible, and cranium reconstructions in three cases. In case 1, synchronous beard and ear reconstructions were accomplished by using the temporoparietal and retroauricular flaps. In case 2, a buccomandibular defect was reconstructed by transposing the supra-auricular and retroauricular galea with prefabricated bone and skin. In case 3, an epidural hematoma in the left frontoparietal area was evacuated after a circular craniectomy. The harvested bone was not put back on the defect area but buried between the periosteal and galeal layers because of brain edema. These layers were raised as an osteogaleoperiosteal flap and transposed onto the defect area after 7 weeks. When used with a prefabrication method, scalp layers offer versatile options for repairing composite defects of the head region. A galeal flap based on the posterior auricular vessels is practical and reliable in reconstructive procedures. The authors suggest that this flap is an option in cases in which the temporoparietal fascia artery or the superficial temporal artery is not available. Prefabrication of the harvested cranial bone inside the adjacent tissues offers several advantages in that a viable bone is provided at the end of the procedure, intervention at a distant area is avoided, the graft is placed on osteogenic tissue (periosteum) that is also transposed onto the defect, and sophisticated procedures such as microsurgical techniques are not needed.
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